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A novel water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion based on natural oils, namely extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and sunflower oil (SO), in the presence of non-ionic surfactants was successfully formulated. The novel microemulsion was used as a carrier for gallic acid (GA) to assure its protection and efficacy upon nasal administration. The work presents evidence that this microemulsion can be used as a nasal formulation for the delivery of polar antioxidants, especially, after incorporation of chitosan (CH) in its aqueous phase. The structure of the system was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy techniques. By the addition of CH, the diameter of the microemulsion remained unaltered at 47 nm whereas after the incorporation of GA, micelles with 51 nm diameter were detected. The dynamic properties of the surfactant monolayer were affected by both the incorporation of CH and GA. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the latter remained unaltered (99 %). RPMI 2650 cell line was used as the in vitro model for cell viability and for GA nasal epithelial transport studies after microemulsion administration. The results suggested that the nasal epithelial permeation of GA was enhanced, 3 h post administration, by the presence of 0.2 % v/v microemulsion in the culture medium. However, the concentration of the transported antioxidant in the presence of CH was higher indicating the polymer's effect on the transport of the GA. The study revealed that nasal administration of hydrophilic antioxidants could be used as an alternative route besides oral administration.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
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