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Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was applied for the first time in seven cities across Europe with the aim of estimating quinolones consumption via the analysis of human urinary metabolites in wastewater. This report is also the first pan-European study focussed on the enantiomeric profiling of chiral quinolones in wastewater. By considering loads of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater within the context of human stereoselective metabolism, we identified cities in Southern Europe characterised by both high usage and direct disposal of unused ofloxacin. In Northern European cities, S-(-)-ofloxacin loads were predominant with respect to R-(+)-ofloxacin. Much more potent, enantiomerically pure S-(-)-ofloxacin was detected in wastewaters from Southern European cities, reflecting consumption of the enantiomerically pure antibiotic. Nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and lomefloxacin were detected in wastewater even though they were not prescribed according to official prescription data. S,S-(-)-moxifloxacin and S,S-(-)-moxifloxacin-N-sulphate were detected in wastewater due to metabolism of moxifloxacin. For the first time, average population-normalised ulifloxacin loads of 22.3 and 1.5 mg day 1000 people were reported for Milan and Castellón as a result of prulifloxacin metabolism. Enrichment of flumequine with first-eluting enantiomer in all the samples indicated animal metabolism rather than its direct disposal. Fluoroquinolone loads were compared with qnrS gene encoding quinolone resistance to correlate usage of fluoroquinolone and prevalence of resistance. The highest daily loads of the qnrS gene in Milan corresponded with the highest total quinolone load in Milan proving the hypothesis that higher usage of quinolones is linked with higher prevalence of quinolone resistance genes. Utrecht, with the lowest quinolones usage (low daily loads) had also one of the lowest daily loads of the qnrS gene. However, a similar trend was not observed in Oslo nor Bristol where higher qnrS gene loads were observed despite low quinolone usage.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
An antipsychotic agent that is structurally related to piperazines and quinolones. It is a partial agonist of SEROTONIN RECEPTOR, 5-HT1A and DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS, where it also functions as a post-synaptic antagonist, and an antagonist of SEROTONIN RECEPTOR, 5-HT2A.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...