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Commensal microbial communities inhabit biological niches in the mammalian host, where they impact the host's physiology through induction of "colonization resistance" against infections by a multitude of molecular mechanisms. These colonization-regulating activities involve microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions, which induce, through utilization of complex bacterial networks, competition over nutrients, inhibition by antimicrobial peptides, stimulation of the host immune system, and promotion of mucus and intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. Distinct virulent pathogens overcome this colonization resistance and host immunity as part of a hostile takeover of the host niche, leading to clinically overt infection. The following review provides a mechanistic overview of the role of commensal microbes in modulating colonization resistance and pathogenic infections and means by which infectious agents may overcome such inhibition. Last, we outline evidence, unknowns, and challenges in developing strategies to harness this knowledge to treat infections by microbiota transfer, phage therapy, or supplementation by rationally defined bacterial consortia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular cell
Clostridium difficile (Cd) infection (CDI) typically occurs after antibiotic usage perturbs the gut microbiota. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in the gut and their development is...
Resistance to infection is a multifactorial trait, and recent work has suggested that the gut microbiota can also contribute to resistance. Here, we performed a fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) to di...
Interactions between intestinal microbiota and clostridioides difficile. Clostridioides difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that is responsible for diarrhea and post-antibiot...
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Altered interplay between gut mucosa and dysbiotic bacteria during HIV infection seems to contribute to chronic immune dysfunction. Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota with nutrition...
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Studies has shown an increasingly infection rate after splenectomy, and there is a potential correlation between microbiota and immune system. investigators suppose that increasingly infec...
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A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.
Regeneration of normal immune function after immune depleting procedures or infections (e.g., HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION). Delayed and incomplete reconstitution of the ADAPTIVE IMMUNE system in particular involving T-CELLS is associated with increase or relapse of infection.
Transfer of GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIOTA from one individual to another by infusion of donor FECES to the upper or lower GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT of the recipient.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A heterogeneous, immature population of myeloid cells that can suppress the activity of T-CELLS and NATURAL KILLER CELLS in the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE and ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE. They play important roles in ONCOGENESIS; INFLAMMATION; and INFECTION.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
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