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Understanding the function of genes within staple crops will accelerate crop improvement by allowing targeted breeding approaches. Despite their importance, a lack of genomic information and resources has hindered the functional characterisation of genes in major crops. The recent release of high-quality reference sequences for these crops underpins a suite of genetic and genomic resources that support basic research and breeding. For wheat, these include gene model annotations, expression atlases and gene networks that provide information about putative function. Sequenced mutant populations, improved transformation protocols and structured natural populations provide rapid methods to study gene function directly. We highlight a case study exemplifying how to integrate these resources. This review provides a helpful guide for plant scientists, especially those expanding into crop research, to capitalise on the discoveries made in and other plants. This will accelerate the improvement of crops of vital importance for food and nutrition security.
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Next generation sequencing (NGS) and assembly are key pieces in the success of cereal crops genomes sequencing. One interesting strategy for reducing the complexity in large genomes, the case of sever...
Since the first genome-scale comparisons, it has been evident that the genomes of many species are unbound by strict vertical descent: Large differences in gene content can occur among genomes belongi...
Recent analyses suggest bacterial and/or mitochondrion-like ancestry for giant viruses (Megavirales ): amoeban mitochondrial gene arrangements resemble those of their candidate homologs in megaviral g...
Malvaceae is a family of flowering plants containing many economically important plant species including cotton, cacao and durian. Recently, the genomes of several Malvaceae species have been decoded,...
Vertebrate genomes are mosaics of megabase-size DNA segments with a fairly homogeneous base composition, called isochores. They are divided into five families characterized by different guanine-cytosi...
The Dynamic Coronary Roadmap is a commercially available product developed by Philips Medical Systems, a Philips Healthcare company. Dynamic Coronary Roadmap is a software medical device i...
In this study, a multiple food crops basket (containing four either biofortified or commercially-available food crops) will be fed to young children in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India over a pe...
The purpose of this research study is to measure the effects of using a mobile phone app (Roadmap 2.0) on the health-related quality of life of caregivers and patients undergoing allogenei...
Recovery Roadmap: A Collaborative Multimedia Tool for Person-Centered Recovery Planning is a highly interactive web-based tool that provides guidance for providers and people in recovery, ...
RGX-111 is a gene therapy which is intended to deliver a functional copy of the α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene to the central nervous system. This is a safety and dose ranging study to deter...
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Organisms that have been genetically modified include micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeast, insects, plants, fish, an...