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This review focuses on the two-century old concept of proton hopping. Introduced in 1806 by Grottus, it has evolved into an explanation of great diversity in describing many functions in living systems. It is a process involving water, which expands on the belief that life exists only in the presence of water. This review describes the mechanism of the process as it carries information through water. A focus is initially made on the process in water in the nerve systems. The nature of the process in these systems is described as the passage of proton hopping in living systems. In drug-receptor encounters, proton hopping is initiated, carrying specific information from these specialized encounters. The review continues with an explanation of sleep, arising from an alteration in proton hopping. A similar phenomenon of the effect of general anesthetic agents is described, as they interfere with by proton hopping. Finally, memory functions are addressed in the realm of events carried by proton hopping.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current computer-aided drug design
This work employs molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the solvation and transport properties of hydrated excess protons (with a hydronium-like core structure) in non-ionic Igepal CO-520 reve...
The Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law is a fundamental result in solid-state physics that relates the thermal and electrical conductivity of a metal. It is derived from the predominant transport mechanism in m...
The molecular mechanics with proton transfer (MMPT) force field is combined with multi state adiabatic reactive molecular dynamics (MS-ARMD) to describe proton transport in the condensed phase. Parame...
In proton therapy high energy protons are used to irradiate a tumor. Ideally, the delivered proton dose distribution is measured during treatment to ensure patient safety and treatment effectiveness. ...
The proton conduction properties of a phosphonato-sulfonate-based coordination polymer are studied by impedance spectroscopy using a single crystal specimen. Two distinct conduction mechanisms are ide...
Researchers want to compare proton stopping ratios, used for proton beam therapy planning, calculated based on single energy CT and dual energy CT images; with the intension of improve upo...
The purpose of this study is to see what effects, good and/or bad, proton radiation, and/or conventional radiation and hormonal therapy (if applicable), has on prostate cancer that has alr...
This research study is studying proton radiation as a possible treatment for brain tumor that requires radiation. The radiation involved in this study is: -Proton Radiation
Primary Objectives: To establish the efficacy of proton beam therapy with or without photon beam radiation therapy for skull base chordoma. Secondary Objectives: 1. To det...
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that 1)intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or proton radiation therapy would result in improved local control rate and lowered toxic...
The study of systems, particularly electronic systems, which function after the manner of, in a manner characteristic of, or resembling living systems. Also, the science of applying biological techniques and principles to the design of electronic systems.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...
Anesthesia is the loss of feeling or sensation in all or part of the body. It may result from damage to nerves or can be induced by an anesthetist (a medical professional) using anesthetics such as thiopental or propofol or sevoflurane during a surgical ...