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Macrophage polarization contributes to obesity-induced insulin resistance. Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperon specialized for folding and quality control of secreted and membrane proteins. To determine the role of GRP94 in macrophage polarization and insulin resistance, macrophage-specific GRP94 conditional knockout (KO) mice were generated, and were challenged with high fat diet (HFD). Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and macrophage composition were compared with control mice. KO mice showed better glucose tolerance and increased insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissues from HFD-KO mice contained lower numbers of M1 macrophages than WT mice, with lower expression of M1 macrophage markers. In vitro, WT adipocytes co-cultured with KO macrophages retained insulin sensitivity whereas those cultured with WT macrophages did not. In addition, compared to WT bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), BMDMs from GRP94 KO mice exhibited lower expression of M1 macrophage marker genes following stimulation with LPS or IFN-γ, and exhibited partially increased expression of M2 macrophage marker genes following stimulation with interleukin 4 (IL-4). These findings identify GRP94 as a novel regulator of M1 macrophage polarization and insulin resistance and inflammation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
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A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
A forkhead box transcription factor that is a major target of INSULIN signaling and regulator of metabolic homeostasis in response to OXIDATIVE STRESS. It binds to the insulin RESPONSE ELEMENT (IRE) and the related Daf-16 family binding element (DBE). Its activity is suppressed by insulin and it also regulates OSTEOBLAST proliferation, controls bone mass, and skeletal regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism. It promotes GLUCONEOGENESIS in HEPATOCYTES and regulates gene expression in ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is also an important CELL DEATH regulator. Chromosomal aberrations involving the FOXO1 gene occur in RHABDOMYOSARCOMA.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
Rare autosomal recessive syndrome of extreme insulin resistance due to mutations in the binding domain of INSULIN RECEPTOR. Clinical features include severe intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction, characteristic dysmorphic FACIES; HIRSUTISM; VIRILIZATION; multiple endocrine abnormalities, and early death.
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