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Microgravity Affects the Level of Matrix Polysaccharide 1,3:1,4-β-Glucans in Cell Walls of Rice Shoots by Increasing the Expression Level of a Gene Involved in Their Breakdown.

08:00 EDT 24th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Microgravity Affects the Level of Matrix Polysaccharide 1,3:1,4-β-Glucans in Cell Walls of Rice Shoots by Increasing the Expression Level of a Gene Involved in Their Breakdown."

The plant cell wall provides each cell with structural support and mechanical strength, and thus, it plays an important role in supporting the plant body against the gravitational force. We investigated the effects of microgravity on the composition of cell wall polysaccharides and on the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall metabolism using rice shoots cultivated under artificial 1 and microgravity conditions on the International Space Station. The bulk amount of the cell wall obtained from microgravity-grown shoots was comparable with that from 1 -grown shoots. However, the analysis of sugar constituents of matrix polysaccharides showed that microgravity specifically reduced the amount of glucose (Glc)-containing polysaccharides such as 1,3:1,4-β-glucans, in shoot cell walls. The expression level of a gene for endo-1,3:1,4-β-glucanase, which hydrolyzes 1,3:1,4-β-glucans, largely increased under microgravity conditions. However, the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of 1,3:1,4-β-glucans were almost the same under both gravity conditions. On the contrary, microgravity scarcely affected the level and the metabolism of arabinoxylans. These results suggest that a microgravity environment promotes the breakdown of 1,3:1,4-β-glucans, which, in turn, causes the reduced level of these polysaccharides in growing rice shoots. Changes in 1,3:1,4-β-glucan level may be involved in the modification of mechanical properties of cell walls under microgravity conditions in space.

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Name: Astrobiology
ISSN: 1557-8070
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

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High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

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