Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The plant cell wall provides each cell with structural support and mechanical strength, and thus, it plays an important role in supporting the plant body against the gravitational force. We investigated the effects of microgravity on the composition of cell wall polysaccharides and on the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall metabolism using rice shoots cultivated under artificial 1 and microgravity conditions on the International Space Station. The bulk amount of the cell wall obtained from microgravity-grown shoots was comparable with that from 1 -grown shoots. However, the analysis of sugar constituents of matrix polysaccharides showed that microgravity specifically reduced the amount of glucose (Glc)-containing polysaccharides such as 1,3:1,4-β-glucans, in shoot cell walls. The expression level of a gene for endo-1,3:1,4-β-glucanase, which hydrolyzes 1,3:1,4-β-glucans, largely increased under microgravity conditions. However, the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of 1,3:1,4-β-glucans were almost the same under both gravity conditions. On the contrary, microgravity scarcely affected the level and the metabolism of arabinoxylans. These results suggest that a microgravity environment promotes the breakdown of 1,3:1,4-β-glucans, which, in turn, causes the reduced level of these polysaccharides in growing rice shoots. Changes in 1,3:1,4-β-glucan level may be involved in the modification of mechanical properties of cell walls under microgravity conditions in space.
This article was published in the following journal.
Spaceflight-associated immune system weakening ultimately limits the ability of humans to expand their presence beyond the earth's orbit. A mechanistic study of microgravity-regulated immune cell func...
The naturally occurring polysaccharide, β-1,3-glucans, a well-known immunostimulant, has been highly valued for many years for their health-promoting and anti-aging properties, but its mode of action...
Phytoremediation assisted by plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is considered an effective strategy for cadmium (Cd) removal in contaminated sites. This study uses a hydroponic experiment to inves...
In the next several decades, humans will explore deep space, including Mars. During long-term space flight, astronauts will be exposed to various physical stressors. Among these stressors, microgravit...
Polysaccharides are the main components of plant cell walls in which they make an important contribution to cadmium (Cd) fixation. However, knowledge regarding the role of root cell wall polysaccharid...
The goal of this study is to assess the affect of ground based microgravity on co-cultured vascular cell types. Our goal is to better understand the cross-talk between vascular cell types ...
It has been described that microgravity affects cellular and molecular structures. Cell membrane, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm and nucleus have been found to be sensible to gravitational change...
The proposal contained herein seeks to examine the effect of simulated microgravity on important cell-cell interactions that govern vascular health. The interest lies in endothelial cell (...
Allogenic acellular dermal matrix has been used in burn injuries or abdominal walls reconstructions. However, it is solely used in breast reconstructions after breast carcinoma amputation....
3-D Ballistocardiography (BCG) recording was performed in microgravity during the Spacelab D2 missions on a single astronaut. The results from this experiment have been published in the li...
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.
Matrix metalloproteinases that are associated with the CELL MEMBRANE, either through transmembrane domains or GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases may act within the pericellular environment to influence the process of CELL MIGRATION.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...