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As the world moves toward electromobility and a concomitant decarbonization of its electrical supply, modern society is also entering a so-called fourth industrial revolution marked by a boom of electronic devices and digital technologies. Consequently, battery demand has exploded along with the need for ores and metals to fabricate them. Starting from such a critical analysis and integrating robust structural data, this review aims at pointing out there is room to promote organic-based electrochemical energy storage. Combined with recycling solutions, redox-active organic species could decrease the pressure on inorganic compounds and offer valid options in terms of environmental footprint and possible disruptive chemistries to meet the energy storage needs of both today and tomorrow. We review state-of-the-art developments in organic batteries, current challenges, and prospects, and we discuss the fundamental principles that govern the reversible chemistry of organic structures. We provide a comprehensive overview of all reported cell configurations that involve electroactive organic compounds working either in the solid state or in solution for aqueous or nonaqueous electrolytes. These configurations include alkali (Li/Na/K) and multivalent (Mg, Zn)-based electrolytes for conventional "sealed" batteries and redox-flow systems. We also highlight the most promising systems based on such various chemistries relying on appropriate metrics such as operation voltage, specific capacity, specific energy, or cycle life to assess the performances of electrodes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Chemical reviews
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