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Currently, there are a lot of studies on gender-related risk factors for stroke. However, contradictory data and the lack of a common view on the problem of gender-based approach to stroke prevention determine the importance of this problem. The most significant sex-non-specific stroke risk factors are hypertension, cardiac conditions, including atrial fibrillation, smoking, glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, excessive alcohol consumption, overweight, low physical activity and sedentary lifestyle, emotional stress. However, the incidence and significance of each stroke risk factor in women are different compared with men, due to women's reproductive status. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, abdominal obesity, migraine with aura, emotional stress and depression are more common risk factors in women compared to men. The stroke risk factors unique to women are the timing of age at menarche, pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, hormonal status disturbances, the use of combined oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova
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A marked difference between the individual’s expressed/experienced gender and the gender others would assign him or her, and it must continue for at least six months. (from DSM-5)
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Individuals including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, gender non-conforming people, and other populations whose sexual orientation or GENDER IDENTITY and reproductive development is considered outside cultural, societal, or physiological norms.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behavior or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender.
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