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PubMed Journal Database | American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology - Page: 2 RSS

18:36 EST 10th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 26–50 of 513 from American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology

Maternal microbiome and the hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, preeclampsia.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy specific disorder that can be life threatening for both mother and baby. It is characterized by new onset hypertension during the second half of pregnancy and affects approximately 300,000 women in the United States every year. There is no cure for PE and the only effective treatment is delivery of the placenta and the fetus, which is often preterm. PE is believed to be a severe manifestation of placental dysfunction due to early angiogenic imbalances and inflammatory distur...

A Critical Appraisal of the Tafazzin Knockdown Mouse Model of Barth Syndrome: What Have We Learned About Pathogenesis and Potential Treatments?

Pediatric heart failure remains poorly understood, distinct in many aspects from adult heart failure. Limited data point to roles of altered mitochondrial functioning and in particular, changes in mitochondrial lipids, especially cardiolipin. Barth syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder caused by tafazzin mutations that lead to abnormal cardiolipin profiles. Patients are afflicted by cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth delay. A mouse model of Barth syndrome was developed a decade ago, w...

SUMO2 regulates vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress in mice.

SUMOylation is a post-translational modification of lysine residues. Modification of proteins by SUMO1, 2, and 3 can achieve varied, and often unique, physiological and pathological effects. We looked for SUMO2-specific effects on vascular endothelial function. SUMO2 expression was upregulated in the aortic endothelium of hypercholesterolemic LDLr mice and was responsible for impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in these mice. Moreover, overexpression of SUMO2 in aortas , in cultured endotheli...

Salt restriction lowers blood pressure at rest and during exercise without altering peripheral hemodynamics in hypertensive individuals.

Dietary salt restriction is a well-established approach to lower blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular disease risk in hypertensive individuals. However, little is currently known regarding the effects of salt restriction on central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to exercise in those with hypertension. Therefore, this study sought to determine the impact of salt restriction on the central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee extension...

A 4D Flow MRI Evaluation of the Impact of Shear-Dependent Fluid Viscosity on in vitro Fontan Circulation Flow.

The Fontan procedure for univentricular heart defects creates a non-physiologic circulation where systemic venous blood drains directly into the pulmonary arteries, leading to multiorgan dysfunction secondary to chronic low-shear non-pulsatile pulmonary blood flow and central venous hypertension. Although blood viscosity increases exponentially in this low-shear environment, the role of shear-dependent ("non-Newtonian") blood viscosity in this pathophysiology is unclear. We studied 3D-printed Fontan models ...

Sodium, Hypertension, and the Gut: Does the Gut Microbiota Go Salty?

Recent evidence suggests the gut microbiota contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN). The gut microbiota is a highly dynamic organ mediating numerous physiological functions, which can be influenced by external factors such as diet. In particular, a major modifiable risk factor for HTN is dietary sodium intake. Sodium consumption in the United States is significantly greater than recommended by the federal government and organizations such as the American Heart Association. Due to the emerging ...

Gravin Gravitates Atherogenesis to Atheroprogression in the Obesogenic Setting.

PAPP-A and the IGF system in Atherosclerosis - What's Up, What's Down?

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloproteinase with a well-established role in releasing bioactive insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) from IGF binding protein 2, -4 and -5 by proteolytic processing of these. The IGF system has repeatedly been suggested to be involved in the pathology of atherosclerosis, and both PAPP-A and IGF1 are proposed biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this disease. Several experimental approaches based on atherosclerosis mouse models have been undertaken t...

Venous return and the physical connection between distribution of segmental pressures and volumes.

More than sixty years ago, Guyton and co-workers related their observations of venous return to a mathematical model. Showing steady state flow (F) as proportional to the difference between mean systemic pressure, (Pms), and right atrial pressure, (Pra), the model fit their data. The parameter defined by the ratio (Pms - Pra)/F, first called an "impedance", came to be called the "resistance to venous return." The interpretation, that Pra opposes Pms and that, to increase output, the heart must act to reduce...

Impaired function of aorta and perivascular adipose tissue in IL-18-deficient mice.

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is ubiquitously produced by both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, but the central biological role of IL-18 in non-hematopoietic cells has not been sufficiently elucidated. In the present study, we examined the thoracic aorta, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) of the IL-18 knockout (KO) mice in terms of functional and histological aspects. IL-18KO mice exhibited significantly higher blood pressure compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Echocardiographic examination s...

Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is a Key Regulator of CaMKIIγ Expression and Vascular Smooth Muscle Phenotype.

Multifunctional Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multi-gene family with isoform-specific regulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) functions. In previous studies we found that vascular injury resulted in VSM de-differentiation and reduced expression of the CaMKIIg isoform in medial wall VSM. Smooth muscle knockout of CaMKIIg enhanced injury-induced VSM neointimal hyperplasia whereas CaMKIIg over-expression inhibited VSM proliferation and neointimal formation. In this study, we evalua...

Modelling arterial pulse waves in healthy ageing: a database for in silico evaluation of haemodynamics and pulse wave indices.

The arterial pulse wave (PW) is a rich source of information on cardiovascular (CV) health. It is widely measured by both consumer and clinical devices. However, the physical determinants of the PW are not yet fully understood, and the development of PW analysis algorithms is limited by a lack of PW datasets containing reference CV measurements. Our aim was to create a database of PWs simulated by a computer to span a range of CV conditions, representative of a sample of healthy adults. The typical CV prope...

-Cardiac intramural electrical mapping reveals focal delays but no conduction velocity slowing in the peri-infarct region.

Altered electrical behaviour alongside healed myocardial infarcts (MI) is associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the multidimensional mechanisms are poorly understood and described. This study characterises, for the first time, the intramural spread of electrical activation in the peri-infarct region of chronic reperfusion MIs. Four sheep were studied 13 weeks after antero-apical reperfusion infarction. Extracellular potentials (ECPs) were recorded in a ~20×20 mm region adjacent t...

High-mannose intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) enhances CD16+ monocyte adhesion to the endothelium.

Human monocytes have been classified into three distinct groups - classical (anti-inflammatory; CD14/CD16), non-classical (patrolling; CD14/CD16), and intermediate (pro-inflammatory; CD14/CD16). Adhesion of non-classical / intermediate monocytes with the endothelium is important for innate immunity, and also vascular inflammatory disease. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms that regulate CD16 vs. CD16 monocyte adhesion to the inflamed endothelium. Here, we tested the hypothesis t...

Hyperphosphatemia is Required for Initiation, but not Propagation, of Kidney Failure-Induced Calcific Aortic Valve Disease.

High serum levels of phosphate are associated with uraemia-induced calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, it is not clear whether hyperphosphataemia is required in all phases of the process. Our aim was to determine the effects of phosphate and phosphate depletion at different phases of valve disease. The experimental design consisted of administering a uraemia-inducing diet, with or without phosphate enrichment, to rats for 7 weeks. Forty-two rats were fed with a phosphate- uraemic regimen that cau...

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in embryonic vascular development and hypertension.

Hypertension, a chronic elevation in blood pressure, is the largest single contributing factor to mortality worldwide and the most common preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. High blood pressure increases the risk for someone to experience a number of adverse cardiovascular events including heart failure, stroke, or aneurysm. Despite advancements in understanding factors that contribute to hypertension, the etiology remains elusive and there remains a critical need to develop innovative study...

Right Ventricular Oxygen Delivery as a Determinant of Right Ventricular Functional Reserve during Exercise in Juvenile Swine with Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension.

Assessing right ventricular (RV) functional reserve is important for determining clinical status and prognosis in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). In this study, we aim to establish RV-oxygen (O) deliveryas a determinant for RV-functional reserve during exercise in swine with chronic PH.

The Impact of Diet on the Persistence of Early Vascular Remodeling and Stiffening Induced by Intrauterine Growth Restriction and a Maternal High-fat Diet.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal high-fat diet (HFD) independently predispose offspring to hypertension. In a rat model, IUGR more so than maternal HFD increases arterial stiffness with vascular remodeling as early as post-natal day (PND) 21. The trajectory of such early vascular changes remains unknown. We hypothesized that IUGR would increase blood pressure (BP), arterial stiffness, and markers of ongoing detrimental vascular remodeling in adult rats exposed to a maternal HFD regardless...

Impact of Pulmonary Endarterectomy on Pulmonary Arterial Wave Propagation and Reservoir Function.

High wave speed and large wave reflection in the pulmonary artery have previously been reported in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We assessed the impact of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) on pulmonary arterial wave propagation and reservoir function in CTEPH patients. Right heart catheterization was performed using a combined pressure and Doppler flow sensor tipped guidewire to obtain simultaneous pressure and flow velocity measurements in the pulmonary artery in eight C...

Children with Orthostatic Intolerance Exhibit Elevated Markers of Inflammation in the Dorsal Medulla.

Children with orthostatic intolerance (OI) have exaggerated decreases in heart rate variability (HRV) and suppression of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) with standing. Accompanying brain transmitter and metabolite profiles are unknown.

Central and peripheral factors mechanistically linked to exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

Exercise intolerance is a primary symptom of heart failure (HF); however, the specific contribution of central and peripheral factors to this intolerance is not well-described. The hyperbolic relationship between exercise intensity and time-to-exhaustion (speed-duration relationship) defines exercise tolerance, but is underutilized in HF. We tested the hypotheses: critical speed (CS) would be reduced in HF; resting central functional measurements would correlate with CS; and the greatest HF-induced peripher...

STAT4 silencing underlies a novel inhibitory role of microRNA-141-3p in inflammation response of mice with experimental autoimmune myocarditis.

As an inflammatory disease afflicting the heart muscle, autoimmune myocarditis (AM) represents one of the foremost causes of heart failure. Accumulating evidence has implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) in the process of inflammation and autoimmunity. Hence, the current study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which miR-141-3p influences experimental AM (EAM). An EAM mouse model was established using 6-week old male BALB/c mice, after which the expression of miR-141-3p and STAT4 was measured. Gain- and loss-of-...

Aging women and their endothelium: Probing the relative role of estrogen on vasodilator function.

Despite significant decreases in cardiovascular disease mortality in the past three decades, it still remains the leading cause of death in women. Following menopause and the accompanying loss of estrogen, women experience a unique, accelerated rise in CVD risk factors. Dysfunction of the endothelium represents an important antecedent to CVD development, with rapid declines in endothelial vasodilator function reportedly taking place across the menopause transition. Importantly the decline in endothelial fun...

The Effect of Acute High Phosphate Intake on Muscle Metaboreflex Activation and Vascular Function.

Increased consumption of inorganic phosphate (Pi), an abundant ingredient in processed foods, has been associated with elevated cardiovascular disease risk; however studies investigating underlying mechanisms are limited. Recently, high dietary Pi was shown to exaggerate the pressor response to static muscle contraction in rodents due, in part, to overactivation of metabolically-sensitive skeletal muscle afferents. Whether acute high Pi consumption affects muscle metaboreflex activation in humans remains un...

The Adaptive Immune Role of Metallothioneins in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: Good or Bad.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, resulting in low-grade systemic inflammation. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common complication among diabetes patients, and the mechanism underlying its induction of cardiac remodeling and dysfunction remains unclear. Numerous experimental and clinical studies suggested that adaptive immunity, especially T lymphocyte-mediated immunity, plays a potentially important role in in the pathogenesis of diabetes and DCM. Metallothioneins (MTs), ...


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