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PubMed Journals Articles About "Cell Signaling Technologies" - Page: 2 RSS

22:22 EDT 18th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Cell Signaling Technologies PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Cell Signaling Technologies articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Cell Signaling Technologies" PubMed Articles 26–50 of 29,000+

β Cell GLP-1R Signaling Alters α Cell Proglucagon Processing after Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy in Mice.

Bariatric surgery, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), causes high rates of type 2 diabetes remission and remarkable increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. GLP-1 plays a critical role in islet function by potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; however, the mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Therefore, we applied a murine VSG model to an inducible β cell-specific GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) knockout mouse model to investigate the role of the β cell GLP-1R i...


Tobacco smoke and nicotine suppress expression of activating signaling molecules in human dendritic cells.

Cigarette smoke has significant toxic effects on the immune system, and increases the risk of developing autoimmune diseases; one immunosuppressive effect of cigarette smoke is that it inhibits the T cell-stimulating, immunogenic properties of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). As the functions of DCs are regulated by intra-cellular signaling pathways, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and nicotine on multiple signaling molecules and other regulatory proteins in human DCs to elucidate...

Arabidopsis CKI1 mediated two-component signaling in the specification of female gametophyte.

Cytokinin independent 1 (CKI1) is a histidine kinase involved in the two-component signaling pathway and acts as a master regulator of central cell specification via CKI1-mediated two-component signaling. In this study, the dynamic distribution of two-component system (TCS) signals was primarily investigated during Arabidopsis embryo sac development. TCS signals were stably detected in female gametophytes cells from the megaspore stage all through to the mature embryo sac stage. CKI1 acts as the primary act...


LGR5 and BMI1 Increase Pig Intestinal Epithelial Cell Proliferation by Stimulating WNT/β-Catenin Signaling.

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) and B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1) are markers of fast-cycling and quiescent intestinal stem cells, respectively. To determine the functions of these proteins in large animals, we investigated their effects on the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells from pigs. Our results indicated that LGR5 and BMI1 are highly conserved proteins and that the pig proteins have greater homology with the human pr...

Identification of Two Protein-Signaling States Delineating Transcriptionally Heterogeneous Human Medulloblastoma.

The brain cancer medulloblastoma consists of different transcriptional subgroups. To characterize medulloblastoma at the phosphoprotein-signaling level, we performed high-throughput peptide phosphorylation profiling on a large cohort of SHH (Sonic Hedgehog), group 3, and group 4 medulloblastomas. We identified two major protein-signaling profiles. One profile was associated with rapid death post-recurrence and resembled MYC-like signaling for which MYC lesions are sufficient but not necessary. The second pr...

The LIS1/NDE1 Complex Is Essential for FGF Signaling by Regulating FGF Receptor Intracellular Trafficking.

Intracellular transport of membranous organelles and protein complexes to various destinations is fundamental to signaling transduction and cellular function. The cytoplasmic dynein motor and its regulatory proteins LIS1 and NDE1 are required for transporting a variety of cellular cargos along the microtubule network. In this study, we show that deletion of Lis1 in developing lung endoderm and limb mesenchymal cells causes agenesis of the lungs and limbs. In both mutants, there is increased cell death and ...

Manipulation and Sensing of auxin metabolism, transport and signaling.

The plant hormone auxin is involved in virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Chemical genetic approach has greatly contributed to identify important genes in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. Molecular genetic technologies and structural information for auxin regulatory components have accelerated the identification and characterization of many novel small molecule modulators in auxin biology. These modulators have been widely utilized to dissect auxin responses. This review wil...

Spatiotemporal Coordination of FGF and Shh Signaling Underlies the Specification of Myoblasts in the Zebrafish Embryo.

Somitic cells give rise to a variety of cell types in response to Hh, BMP, and FGF signaling. Cell position within the developing zebrafish somite is highly dynamic: how, when, and where these signals specify cell fate is largely unknown. Combining four-dimensional imaging with pathway perturbations, we characterize the spatiotemporal specification and localization of somitic cells. Muscle formation is guided by highly orchestrated waves of cell specification. We find that FGF directly and indirectly contro...

AKT signaling displays multifacet functions in Neural Crest development.

AKT signaling is an essential intracellular pathway controlling cell homeostasis, cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell migration and differentiation in adults. Alterations impacting the AKT pathway are involved in many pathological conditions in human disease. Similarly, during development, multiple transmembrane molecules, such as FGF receptors, PDGF receptors or integrins, activate AKT to control embryonic cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and also cell fate decisions. While many...

Mechanisms of resistance in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer: overcoming resistance to tamoxifen/aromatase inhibitors.

Several mechanisms of resistance have been identified, underscoring the complex nature of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and the many connections between this pathway and other essential signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Many therapeutic targets of cell signaling and cell cycle pathways have met success with endocrine therapy and remain an ongoing area of investigation. This review focuses on two major pathways that have recently emerged as important opportunities for therapeutic intervention in ...

The "mechanostat" principle in cell differentiation. The osteochondroprogenitor paradigm.

The "mechanostat" principle may be depicted as an oscillating signal of a signaling molecule, in which the amplitude, frequency, cumulative level, delay, and duration of the curve encode the information for concrete cellular responses and biological activities. When the oscillating signal is kept sustained (present delay), cell exit may be performed, whereas when the oscillating signal remains robust, cell proliferation may take place. B-catenin-Wnt signaling pathway has a key role in the differentiation of...

Subcellular topography modulates actin dynamics and signaling in B cells.

B cell signaling activation is most effectively triggered by the binding of B cell receptors (BCRs) to membrane-bound antigens.  In vivo, B cells encounter antigen on antigen presenting cells (APC), which possess complex surfaces with convoluted topographies, a fluid membrane and deformable cell bodies. However, whether and how the physical properties of antigen presentation affect B cell activation is not well understood. Here, we use nanotopographic surfaces that allow systematic variation of geometric ...

Calcium, a pivotal player in photodynamic therapy?

Photodynamic therapy combines three non-toxic components: light, oxygen and a photosensitizer to generate singlet oxygen and/or other ROS molecules in order to target destruction of cancer cells. The damage induced in the targeted cells can furthermore propagate to non-exposed bystander cells thereby exacerbating the damage. Ca signaling is strongly intertwined with ROS signaling and both play crucial roles in cell death. In this review we aimed to review current knowledge on the role of Ca and ROS signalin...

Structure and functions of HD-PTP in receptor trafficking and cancer.

Cell surface receptors trigger the activation of signaling pathways to regulate key cellular processes, including cell survival and proliferation. Internalization, sorting and trafficking of activated receptors, therefore play a major role in the regulation and attenuation of cell signaling. Efficient sorting of endocytosed receptors is performed by the ESCRT machinery, which targets receptors for degradation by the sequential establishment of protein complexes. These events are tightly regulated and malfun...

Separating Actin-Dependent Chemokine Receptor Nanoclustering from Dimerization Indicates a Role for Clustering in CXCR4 Signaling and Function.

A current challenge in cell motility studies is to understand the molecular and physical mechanisms that govern chemokine receptor nanoscale organization at the cell membrane, and their influence on cell response. Using single-particle tracking and super-resolution microscopy, we found that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 forms basal nanoclusters in resting T cells, whose extent, dynamics, and signaling strength are modulated by the orchestrated action of the actin cytoskeleton, the co-receptor CD4, and its l...

Context-Specific Mechanisms of Cell Polarity Regulation.

Cell polarity is an essential process shared by almost all animal tissues. Moreover, cell polarity enables cells to sense and respond to the cues provided by the neighboring cells and the surrounding microenvironment. These responses play critical role in regulating key physiological processes, including cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, vesicle trafficking and immune responses. The polarity protein complexes regulating these interactions are highly evolutionarily conserved between vertebrates...

The Role of Auxin in Cell Wall Expansion.

Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls, which are dynamic structures displaying a strictly regulated balance between rigidity and flexibility. Walls are fairly rigid to provide support and protection, but also extensible, to allow cell growth, which is triggered by a high intracellular turgor pressure. Wall properties regulate the differential growth of the cell, resulting in a diversity of cell sizes and shapes. The plant hormone auxin is well known to stimulate cell elongation via increasing wall extens...

Reduced menin expression impairs rapamycin effects as evidenced by an increase in mTORC2 signaling and cell migration.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a master regulator of various cellular responses by forming two functional complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTOR signaling is frequently dysregulated in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). mTOR inhibitors have been used in attempts to treat these lesions, and prolonged progression free survival has been recorded. If this holds true also for the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) associated PNETs is yet unclear. We investigated the relationship between expre...

The effect of ICRT-3 on Wnt signaling pathway in head and neck cancer.

The effect of Wnt pathway in head and neck cancer could not be elucidated, even though the aberrant Wnt signaling plays a key role in the development of many types of cancer. The inhibitor of β-catenin responsive transcription (ICRT-3) blocks the Wnt signaling pathway by binding to β-catenin, which is a coactivator of the Wnt signaling pathway and a promising agent for inhibiting aberrant signaling. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of ICRT-3 on the cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle progre...

Interactions between the circadian clock and TGF-β signaling pathway in zebrafish.

TGF-β signaling is a cellular pathway that functions in most cells and has been shown to play a role in multiple processes, such as the immune response, cell differentiation and proliferation. Recent evidence suggests a possible interaction between TGF-β signaling and the molecular circadian oscillator. The current study aims to characterize this interaction in the zebrafish at the molecular and behavioral levels, taking advantage of the early development of a functional circadian clock and the availabili...

Principles of Ubiquitin-Dependent Signaling.

Ubiquitylation is an essential posttranslational modification that controls cell division, differentiation, and survival in all eukaryotes. By combining multiple E3 ligases (writers), ubiquitin-binding effectors (readers), and deubiquitylases (erasers) with functionally distinct ubiquitylation tags, the ubiquitin system constitutes a powerful signaling network that is employed in similar ways from yeast to humans. Here, we discuss conserved principles of ubiquitin-dependent signaling that illustrate how thi...

Pituitary somatolactotropes evade an oncogenic response to Ras.

Distinct cell types have been shown to respond to activated Ras signaling in a cell-specific manner. In contrast to its pro-tumorigenic role in some human epithelial cancers, oncogenic Ras triggers differentiation of pheochromocytoma cells and medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that in pituitary somatolactotropes, activated Ras promotes differentiation and is not sufficient to drive tumorigenesis. These findings demonstrate that lactotrope cells have the ability ...

MiR-128-3p directly targets VEGFC/VEGFR3 to modulate the proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells through Ca signaling.

Lymphangiogenesis has been regarded as a physiological response to pathologic stimuli. The abnormal proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cell (LECs) and lymphangiogenesis is involved in the development of lymphatic disorders. Reportedly, VEGFC/VEGFR3 plays a key role in lymphangiogenesis; moreover, VEGFC/VEGFR3 exerts their cellular effects through activation of Ca signaling in several cell types. Herein, we demonstrated that VEGFC significantly up-regulated LEC proliferation through VEGFR3; moreover, VEG...

Isolation and Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Heparan Sulfate Cell Mutant Defective in Both Met Receptor Binding and Hepatocyte Growth Factor NK1/Met Signaling.

The up-regulation of hepatocyte growth factor/receptor, HGF/Met, signal transduction is observed in most of human cancers. Specific heparan sulfate structures enhance the HGF/Met signaling at both cell and animal-based model systems. Biochemical studies indicate that heparan sulfate interacts with HGF and a natural occurring splicing variant NK1 of HGF with similar affinity. However, it is currently unknown if cell surface heparan sulfate binds to Met at physiological conditions and if specific cell surface...

Tetraspanin CD82 represses Sp1-mediated Snail expression and the resultant E-cadherin expression interrupts nuclear signaling of β-catenin by increasing its membrane localization.

Tetraspanin membrane proteins form physical complexes with signaling molecules and have been suggested to influence the signaling events of associated molecules. Of the tetraspanin proteins, CD82 has been shown to promote homotypic cell-cell adhesion, which partially accounts for its role in suppressing cancer invasion and metastasis. We found here that CD82-induced cell-cell adhesion is attributed to increased E-cadherin expression through CD82-mediated downregulation of the E-cadherin repressor Snail. The...


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