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PubMed Journals Articles About "Cell Signaling Technologies" - Page: 2 RSS

07:33 EDT 17th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Cell Signaling Technologies PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Cell Signaling Technologies articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Cell Signaling Technologies" PubMed Articles 26–50 of 30,000+

The non-canonical Notch signaling is essential for the control of fertility in Aedes aegypti.

The Notch signaling pathway is a highly evolutionarily-conserved cell-cell signaling pathway that regulates many events during development. It plays a pivotal role in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, stem cell maintenance, and differentiation during embryonic and adult development. However, functions of Notch signaling in Aedes aegypti, the major mosquito vector for dengue, are largely unknown. In this study, we identified a unique feature of A. aegypti Notch (Aa...


TCR signal strength controls thymic differentiation of iNKT cell subsets.

During development in the thymus, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells commit to one of three major functionally different subsets, iNKT1, iNKT2, and iNKT17. Here, we show that T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal strength governs the development of iNKT cell subsets, with strong signaling promoting iNKT2 and iNKT17 development. Altering TCR diversity or signaling diminishes iNKT2 and iNKT17 cell subset development in a cell-intrinsic manner. Decreased TCR signaling affects the persistence of Egr2 expres...

TGF-β Determines the Pro-migratory Potential of bFGF Signaling in Medulloblastoma.

The microenvironment shapes cell behavior and determines metastatic outcomes of tumors. We addressed how microenvironmental cues control tumor cell invasion in pediatric medulloblastoma (MB). We show that bFGF promotes MB tumor cell invasion through FGF receptor (FGFR) in vitro and that blockade of FGFR represses brain tissue infiltration in vivo. TGF-β regulates pro-migratory bFGF function in a context-dependent manner. Under low bFGF, the non-canonical TGF-β pathway causes ROCK activation and cortical...


Propofol inhibits Wnt signaling and exerts anticancer activity in glioma cells.

Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is implicated in gliomagenesis. Propofol, the most commonly used intravenous anesthetic agent in clinics, exhibits potent antitumor activity in a variety of cancer cells through different mechanisms. However, the role of propofol on Wnt signaling and glioma cell growth remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, propofol was identified as a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling. In 293T cells transfected with Wnt1 or Wnt3 expression plasmids or treated with Wnt3A-c...

Deltex interacts with Eiger and consequently influences the cell death in Drosophila melanogaster.

TNF-JNK signaling is one of the highly conserved signaling pathways that regulate a broad spectrum of cellular processes including proliferation and apoptosis. Eiger, the sole homologue of TNF in Drosophila, initiates the TNF-JNK pathway to induce cell death. Previously, Deltex (Dx) has been identified as a Notch signaling component that regulates vesicular trafficking of Notch. In the present study, we have investigated the interaction between these two proteins in order to identify how Dx influences the a...

β Cell GLP-1R Signaling Alters α Cell Proglucagon Processing after Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy in Mice.

Bariatric surgery, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), causes high rates of type 2 diabetes remission and remarkable increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. GLP-1 plays a critical role in islet function by potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; however, the mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Therefore, we applied a murine VSG model to an inducible β cell-specific GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) knockout mouse model to investigate the role of the β cell GLP-1R i...

How yeast coordinates metabolism, growth and division.

All cells, especially single cell organisms, need to adapt their metabolism, growth and division coordinately to the available nutrients. This coordination is mediated by extensive cross-talk between nutrient signaling, metabolism, growth, and the cell division cycle, which is only gradually being uncovered: Nutrient signaling not only controls entry into the cell cycle at the G1/S transition, but all phases of the cell cycle. Metabolites are even sensed directly by cell cycle regulators to prevent cell cyc...

LGR5 and BMI1 Increase Pig Intestinal Epithelial Cell Proliferation by Stimulating WNT/β-Catenin Signaling.

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) and B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1) are markers of fast-cycling and quiescent intestinal stem cells, respectively. To determine the functions of these proteins in large animals, we investigated their effects on the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells from pigs. Our results indicated that LGR5 and BMI1 are highly conserved proteins and that the pig proteins have greater homology with the human pr...

Identification of Two Protein-Signaling States Delineating Transcriptionally Heterogeneous Human Medulloblastoma.

The brain cancer medulloblastoma consists of different transcriptional subgroups. To characterize medulloblastoma at the phosphoprotein-signaling level, we performed high-throughput peptide phosphorylation profiling on a large cohort of SHH (Sonic Hedgehog), group 3, and group 4 medulloblastomas. We identified two major protein-signaling profiles. One profile was associated with rapid death post-recurrence and resembled MYC-like signaling for which MYC lesions are sufficient but not necessary. The second pr...

Inhibition of Ras activity coordinates cell fusion with cell-cell contact during yeast mating.

In the fission yeast, pheromone signaling engages a signaling pathway composed of a G protein-coupled receptor, Ras, and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that triggers sexual differentiation and gamete fusion. Cell-cell fusion requires local cell wall digestion, which relies on an initially dynamic actin fusion focus that becomes stabilized upon local enrichment of the signaling cascade on the structure. We constructed a live-reporter of active Ras1 (Ras1-guanosine triphosphate [GTP]) that ...

The LIS1/NDE1 Complex Is Essential for FGF Signaling by Regulating FGF Receptor Intracellular Trafficking.

Intracellular transport of membranous organelles and protein complexes to various destinations is fundamental to signaling transduction and cellular function. The cytoplasmic dynein motor and its regulatory proteins LIS1 and NDE1 are required for transporting a variety of cellular cargos along the microtubule network. In this study, we show that deletion of Lis1 in developing lung endoderm and limb mesenchymal cells causes agenesis of the lungs and limbs. In both mutants, there is increased cell death and ...

Dynamic Encoding in the Notch Pathway.

A small number of signaling pathways are used ubiquitously throughout development. How can enough information be carried through such a small number of channels? Reporting in Cell, Nandagopal et al. (2018) reveal how different Notch ligands can regulate different targets through the same receptor using differences in signaling dynamics.

Manipulation and Sensing of auxin metabolism, transport and signaling.

The plant hormone auxin is involved in virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Chemical genetic approach has greatly contributed to identify important genes in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. Molecular genetic technologies and structural information for auxin regulatory components have accelerated the identification and characterization of many novel small molecule modulators in auxin biology. These modulators have been widely utilized to dissect auxin responses. This review wil...

Cell Size and Growth Rate Are Modulated by TORC2-Dependent Signals.

The size of all cells, from bacteria to vertebrates, is proportional to the growth rate set by nutrient availability, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that nutrients modulate cell size and growth rate via the TORC2 signaling network in budding yeast. An important function of the TORC2 network is to modulate synthesis of ceramide lipids, which play roles in signaling. TORC2-dependent control of ceramide signaling strongly influences both cell size and growth rate. Thus, cells that ca...

AKT signaling displays multifacet functions in Neural Crest development.

AKT signaling is an essential intracellular pathway controlling cell homeostasis, cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell migration and differentiation in adults. Alterations impacting the AKT pathway are involved in many pathological conditions in human disease. Similarly, during development, multiple transmembrane molecules, such as FGF receptors, PDGF receptors or integrins, activate AKT to control embryonic cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and also cell fate decisions. While many...

Mechanisms of resistance in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer: overcoming resistance to tamoxifen/aromatase inhibitors.

Several mechanisms of resistance have been identified, underscoring the complex nature of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and the many connections between this pathway and other essential signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Many therapeutic targets of cell signaling and cell cycle pathways have met success with endocrine therapy and remain an ongoing area of investigation. This review focuses on two major pathways that have recently emerged as important opportunities for therapeutic intervention in ...

The effect of the JAK2 inhibitor TG101209 against T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is mediated by inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling and activation of the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy signaling.

Previous reports have shown that active JAK2 contributes to T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) development and that JAK inhibitors may be a potential treatment for T-ALL. In the current study, the JAK2 inhibitor TG101209 was used to treat T-ALL cell lines and primary T-ALL cells. The effects of TG101209 on T-ALL cells were determined, and the signaling proteins related to cell growth, apoptosis and autophagy were analysed. The results indicated that TG101209 significantly inhibited T-ALL cell prol...

Subcellular topography modulates actin dynamics and signaling in B cells.

B cell signaling activation is most effectively triggered by the binding of B cell receptors (BCRs) to membrane-bound antigens.  In vivo, B cells encounter antigen on antigen presenting cells (APC), which possess complex surfaces with convoluted topographies, a fluid membrane and deformable cell bodies. However, whether and how the physical properties of antigen presentation affect B cell activation is not well understood. Here, we use nanotopographic surfaces that allow systematic variation of geometric ...

Calcium, a pivotal player in photodynamic therapy?

Photodynamic therapy combines three non-toxic components: light, oxygen and a photosensitizer to generate singlet oxygen and/or other ROS molecules in order to target destruction of cancer cells. The damage induced in the targeted cells can furthermore propagate to non-exposed bystander cells thereby exacerbating the damage. Ca signaling is strongly intertwined with ROS signaling and both play crucial roles in cell death. In this review we aimed to review current knowledge on the role of Ca and ROS signalin...

Structure and functions of HD-PTP in receptor trafficking and cancer.

Cell surface receptors trigger the activation of signaling pathways to regulate key cellular processes, including cell survival and proliferation. Internalization, sorting and trafficking of activated receptors, therefore play a major role in the regulation and attenuation of cell signaling. Efficient sorting of endocytosed receptors is performed by the ESCRT machinery, which targets receptors for degradation by the sequential establishment of protein complexes. These events are tightly regulated and malfun...

Separating Actin-Dependent Chemokine Receptor Nanoclustering from Dimerization Indicates a Role for Clustering in CXCR4 Signaling and Function.

A current challenge in cell motility studies is to understand the molecular and physical mechanisms that govern chemokine receptor nanoscale organization at the cell membrane, and their influence on cell response. Using single-particle tracking and super-resolution microscopy, we found that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 forms basal nanoclusters in resting T cells, whose extent, dynamics, and signaling strength are modulated by the orchestrated action of the actin cytoskeleton, the co-receptor CD4, and its l...

Context-Specific Mechanisms of Cell Polarity Regulation.

Cell polarity is an essential process shared by almost all animal tissues. Moreover, cell polarity enables cells to sense and respond to the cues provided by the neighboring cells and the surrounding microenvironment. These responses play critical role in regulating key physiological processes, including cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, vesicle trafficking and immune responses. The polarity protein complexes regulating these interactions are highly evolutionarily conserved between vertebrates...

The Role of Auxin in Cell Wall Expansion.

Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls, which are dynamic structures displaying a strictly regulated balance between rigidity and flexibility. Walls are fairly rigid to provide support and protection, but also extensible, to allow cell growth, which is triggered by a high intracellular turgor pressure. Wall properties regulate the differential growth of the cell, resulting in a diversity of cell sizes and shapes. The plant hormone auxin is well known to stimulate cell elongation via increasing wall extens...

Interactions between the circadian clock and TGF-β signaling pathway in zebrafish.

TGF-β signaling is a cellular pathway that functions in most cells and has been shown to play a role in multiple processes, such as the immune response, cell differentiation and proliferation. Recent evidence suggests a possible interaction between TGF-β signaling and the molecular circadian oscillator. The current study aims to characterize this interaction in the zebrafish at the molecular and behavioral levels, taking advantage of the early development of a functional circadian clock and the availabili...

Principles of Ubiquitin-Dependent Signaling.

Ubiquitylation is an essential posttranslational modification that controls cell division, differentiation, and survival in all eukaryotes. By combining multiple E3 ligases (writers), ubiquitin-binding effectors (readers), and deubiquitylases (erasers) with functionally distinct ubiquitylation tags, the ubiquitin system constitutes a powerful signaling network that is employed in similar ways from yeast to humans. Here, we discuss conserved principles of ubiquitin-dependent signaling that illustrate how thi...


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