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Showing "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults with" PubMed Articles 26–50 of 44,000+

Effects of depression and cognitive impairment on quality of life in older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder: Results from a multicenter study.

Little is known about the respective effects of depression and cognitive impairment on quality of life among older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

Review of Gait, Cognition, and Fall Risks with Implications for Fall Prevention in Older Adults with Dementia.

Older people with cognitive impairment are at increased risk of falls; however, fall prevention strategies have limited success in this population. The aim of this paper is to review the literature to inform a theoretical framework for fall prevention in older adults with dementia.

Study protocol: associations between dietary patterns, cognitive function and metabolic syndrome in older adults - a cross-sectional study.

Loss of cognitive function is a significant issue as the world's population ages. Preserving cognitive function maintains independence in older adults bringing major societal and financial benefits. Lifestyle factors such as diet are modifiable risk factors, which may help preserve cognitive function. Most nutrition research aimed at preserving cognitive function and metabolic health has focussed on individual nutrients and foods, not allowing for food combinations and interactions. A dietary pattern approa...

The effects of different types of physical exercise on physical and cognitive function in frail institutionalized older adults with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. A randomized controlled trial.

The continuous increase in the life expectancy of older adults (elderly people) has generated interest in research into frail-aged people and their physical and mental well-being.

Comparative Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions on Quality of Life for Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Recommendations to engage in behavioral strategies to combat clinically significant cognitive and behavioral symptoms are routinely given to persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The comparative effectiveness of these behavioral interventions is not well understood.

Managing Younger Siblings of Food Allergic Children.

Current guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend testing siblings of food allergic children before introduction of potential allergic foods, but the topic continues to remain controversial. Although the proportion of siblings who are sensitized to a food without clinical reactivity is high in comparison to those with a true food allergy, there is still a known increased risk amongst siblings of children with food allergies that has led to much apprehension about management. The appr...

Future considerations for pediatric cancer survivorship: Translational perspectives from developmental neuroscience.

Breakthroughs in modern medicine have increased pediatric cancer survival rates throughout the last several decades. Despite enhanced cure rates, a subset of pediatric cancer survivors exhibit life-long psychological side effects. A large body of work has addressed potential mechanisms for secondary symptoms of anxiety, post-traumatic stress, impaired emotion regulation and cognitive deficits in adults. Yet, absent from many studies are the ways in which cancer treatment can impact the developing brain. Add...

How do impairments in cognitive functions affect activities of daily living functions in older adults?

The assessment of daily living activities could provide information about daily functions and participation restrictions to develop intervention strategies. The purposes of this study were to assess the scores of the Barthel Index (BI) and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale in older adults with cognitive impairment and to explore the different effects that levels of cognitive functions have on changes in IADL functions. We recruited 31 participants with dementia, 36 with mild cognit...

Sex Differences in Associations of Cognitive Function with Perceptions of Pain in Older Adults.

Sex differences in pain have been shown to exist in older adults with normal cognition and people with Alzheimer's disease. It is unknown if sex differences in pain in older adults exist in a range of communicative older adults with varying cognitive ability from no impairment to moderately severe cognitive impairment.

Posterior Alpha and Gamma Oscillations Index Divergent and Superadditive Effects of Cognitive Interference.

Conflicts at various stages of cognition can cause interference effects on behavior. Two well-studied forms of cognitive interference are stimulus-stimulus (e.g., Flanker), where the conflict arises from incongruence between the task-relevant stimulus and simultaneously presented irrelevant stimulus information, and stimulus-response (e.g., Simon), where interference is the result of an incompatibility between the spatial location of the task-relevant stimulus and a prepotent motor mapping of the expected r...

Assessing the impact of physical exercise on cognitive function in older medical patients during acute hospitalization: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial.

Acute illness requiring hospitalization frequently is a sentinel event leading to long-term disability in older people. Prolonged bed rest increases the risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia in acutely hospitalized older adults. Exercise protocols applied during acute hospitalization can prevent functional decline in older patients, but exercise benefits on specific cognitive domains have not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the effects of a multicomponent exercise interventio...

Switching Gears, Structuring the Right Search Strategy.

Nematodes can use local and global search strategies to find food. In this issue of Neuron, López-Cruz et al. (2019) unravel a neural circuit mechanism that allows worms to select and switch between these search modes depending on recent experience of food.

Feasibility of a 6-month pilot randomised controlled trial of resistance training on cognition and brain health in Canadian older adults at-risk for diabetes: study protocol.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with cognitive deficits and increased risk of dementia, and thus individuals at high risk for T2D (ie, those who are overweight or prediabetic) are also at greater risk for cognitive decline. Aerobic exercise is known to preserve and improve cognitive function, but the effects of resistance training (RT) are much less known in older adults. Moreover, research on the effects of RT on cognition and brain health (structure and function) in older adults at-risk for diabetes i...

The effect of sleep deprivation and exercise on reaction threshold in peanut-allergic adults: a randomised controlled study.

Peanut allergy causes severe and fatal reactions. Current food allergen labelling fails to address these risks adequately against the burden of restricting food choice for allergic individuals because of limited data on thresholds of reactivity and the influence of everyday factors.

Socioeconomic hardship and delayed reward discounting: Associations with working memory and emotional reactivity.

Prolonged exposure to socioeconomic hardship (SH) is associated with greater delayed reward discounting (DRD), a form of impulsive decision-making that reflects a reduced capacity to delay gratification and a significant correlate of diverse risk behaviors, but the neurobehavioral mechanisms linking SH and DRD are unknown. An emerging hypothesis suggests that cognitive and affective stress associated with poverty may tax neurocognitive functions, such as working memory (WM), and lead to impulsive DRD. Furth...

Associations and effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive function and mood in healthy adults: a protocol for a systematic review of observational and interventional studies.

The association between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), brain health, cognitive function and mood has been the subject of intensive research. Marine-derived omega-3 PUFAs, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are highly concentrated in neuronal membranes and affect brain function. Many studies have found that consumption of omega-3 PUFAs is associated with lower risk of cognitive or mood dysfunction. However, other studies have demonstrated no beneficial effects. T...

Longitudinal Evidence for The Effects of Social Group Engagement on the Cognitive and Mental Health of Chinese Retirees.

Research investigating the health benefits of social group participation in the retirement transition has provided little insight into the longitudinal effects on cognitive health and the generalizability of these relationships to non-Western samples. The present paper addresses these issues by examining the effects of social group engagement on the cognitive performance and depression symptoms of Chinese older adults followed over 4 years in their transition to retirement.

The Role of S100B in Aerobic Training Efficacy in Older Adults with Mild Vascular Cognitive Impairment: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Aerobic training improves cognitive and brain outcomes across different populations and neurocognitive disorders of aging, including mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). However, little is known of the underlying mechanisms through which aerobic training exerts its beneficial effects on the brain. Recently, S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) has been proposed a possible mediator of aerobic training. Thus we conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from the proof-of-co...

Clinical and neural responses to cognitive behavioral therapy for functional tremor.

To evaluate changes in tremor severity and motor/emotion-processing circuits in response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered as treatment for functional tremor (FT), the most common functional movement disorder in adults.

Individual variation in cognitive style reflects foraging and anti-predator strategies in a small mammal.

Balancing foraging gain and predation risk is a fundamental trade-off in the life of animals. Individual strategies to acquire, process, store and use information to solve cognitive tasks are likely to affect speed and flexibility of learning, and ecologically relevant decisions regarding foraging and predation risk. Theory suggests a functional link between individual variation in cognitive style and behaviour (animal personality) via speed-accuracy and risk-reward trade-offs. We tested whether cognitive s...

Cognitive functioning following long-term cannabidiol use in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy.

Cognitive dysfunction is a common comorbidity in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE). Recently, cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated efficacy in epilepsy treatment. However, our understanding of CBD's cognitive effects in epilepsy is limited. We examined long-term cognitive effects of CBD in adults with TRE as part of an ongoing prospective, open-label safety study. Twenty-seven adults with TRE (mean age: 34[standard deviation (SD) +14], female 52%) enrolled in the UAB CBD program completed standar...

The acute influence of sucrose consumption with and without vitamin C co-ingestion on microvascular reactivity in healthy young adults.

Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are a major source of dietary sugar and a public health concern. Glucose consumption acutely influences microvascular reactivity in healthy adults, possibly via oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to observe the acute influence of a more relevant dose of sucrose on microvascular reactivity, and to identify whether this response is influenced by the amount of vitamin C typically contained in SSB.

Systematic Review of the Effects of Cognitive and Behavioural Interventions on Fall-Related Psychological Concerns in Older Adults.

This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive and behavioural interventions for improving falls-related psychological concerns. A systematic search yielded 8 randomised controlled trials eligible for inclusion. All studies compared a cognitive and behavioural intervention to a control. Meta-analysis showed that cognitive and behavioural treatments had beneficial effects on fear of falling outcomes [lower score better] immediately after treatment [random effects standardised mean differen...

Neural distinctiveness declines with age in auditory cortex and is associated with auditory GABA levels.

Neural activation patterns in the ventral visual cortex in response to different categories of visual stimuli (e.g., faces vs. houses) are less selective, or distinctive, in older adults than in younger adults, a phenomenon known as age-related neural dedifferentiation. In this study, we investigated whether neural dedifferentiation extends to auditory cortex. Inspired by previous animal work, we also investigated whether individual differences in GABA are associated with individual differences in neural di...

Non-pharmacological motor-cognitive treatment to improve the mental health of elderly adults.

To propose a program of physical-cognitive dual task and to measure its impact in Chilean institutionalized elderly adults.

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