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People infected with HIV through injection drug use are more likely to experience progression to AIDS, death due to AIDS, and all-cause mortality even when controlling for access to care and antiretroviral therapy. While high-risk behavior and concurrent infections most certainly are contributors, chronic immune activation, downstream metabolic comorbidities may play an important role.
Decision aids are software or paper-based tools that enable patients and health care practitioners to work together to make optimal treatment decisions. Although there are decades of favorable research for the use of decision aids, there is wide variation in their development and implementation.
As survival rates for individuals with HIV/AIDS diagnoses increase, cancer is becoming a more prevalent disease in this population. Data regarding the concurrent diagnoses of HIV/AIDS and cancer has not previously been examined and analyzed in the state of Iowa.
Thirty percent of all inherited retinal disease (IRD) is accounted for by conditions with extra-ocular features. This study aimed to establish the genetic diagnostic pick-up rate for IRD patients with one or more extra-ocular features undergoing panel-based screening in a clinical setting. One hundred and six participants, tested on a gene panel which contained both isolated and syndromic IRD genes, were retrospectively ascertained from the Manchester Genomic Diagnostics Laboratory database spanning 6 years...
This study is an attempt to explain a reliable numerical analysis of a stochastic HIV/AIDS model in a two-sex population considering counselling and antiretroviral therapy (ART). The authors are comparing the solutions of the stochastic and deterministic HIV/AIDS epidemic model. Here, an endeavour has been made to explain the stochastic HIV/AIDS epidemic model is comparatively more pragmatic in contrast with the deterministic HIV/AIDS epidemic model. The effect of threshold number holds on the stochastic H...
Elevated blood C24:0- and C26:0-carnitines and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) were reported as diagnostic biomarkers for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Our aim was to establish the reference intervals of very long-chain (VLC) acylcarnitines (C20-C26) and LPCs in Chinese population, and evaluate valuable biomarkers and develop panel for screening X-ALD in China.
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are monogenic diseases, due to accumulation of specific undegraded substrates into lysosomes. LSD diagnosis could take several years, due to both poor knowledge of these diseases and shared clinical features. The diagnostic approach includes clinical evaluations, biochemical tests and genetic analysis of the suspected gene. In this study, we evaluated an LSD targeted sequencing panel as a tool capable to potentially reverse this 'classic' diagnostic route. The panel include...
Cryptococcal meningitis has a high morbidity and mortality among AIDS population. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) detection is considered an independent predictor for meningitis and death. Since 2011, the World Health Organization recommends CrAg screening for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) with CD4 counts
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women worldwide. Moreover, there are no reliable minimal invasive tests to secure the diagnosis of malignant pelvic masses. Cell-free, circulating microRNAs have the potential as diagnostic biomarkers in cancer. Here, we performed and validated a miRNA panel with the potential to distinguish OC from benign pelvic masses.
Current gold standard for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) diagnosis is histopathologic analysis, usually performed on preoperative incisional biopsies. Several tools have been proposed in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and to possibly help the identification of most suspicious areas of dysplastic or neoplastic alterations (Holmstrup, Vedtofte, Reibel & Stoltze, 2007). However, the use of such diagnostic aids is associated to low accuracy (Giovannacci,...
The FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel is a multiplex PCR assay which can detect the most commonly identified pathogens in central nervous system infections. It significantly decreases the time to diagnosis of ME and data has yielded several positive outcomes. However, in part, reports of both false positive and false negative detections have resulted in concerns about adoption.
HIV/AIDS has become the leading cause of death by infectious disease in China since 2009. However, the trend of gender disparities in HIV/AIDS has not been reported in China since 1990. Our study aimed to explore the secular trend of HIV/AIDS mortality in China from 1990 to 2016 and to identify its gender disparities over the past 27 years.
According to the United Nations AIDS reports in 2018, the Middle East and North Africa region is considered an areas of increasing concern for HIV infection due to high mortality associated with AIDS. The incidence of HIV/AIDS in Palestine between 1988 and 2017 as reported by Palestinian Ministry of Health was analyzed. A total of 98 cases were reported (79 AIDS patients and 19 HIV positives). A national wide surveillance is needed to understand the epidemiology of HIV infection in the country. Identificati...
Cardiac amyloidosis is emerging as an underdiagnosed cause of heart failure and mortality. Growing literature suggests that a noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis is now feasible. However, the diagnostic criteria and utilization of imaging in cardiac amyloidosis are not standardized. In this paper, Part 2 of a series, a panel of international experts from multiple societies define the diagnostic criteria for cardiac amyloidosis and appropriate utilization of echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic...
World AIDS Day, observed annually on December 1, draws attention to the status of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. Approximately 37.9 million persons worldwide are living with HIV infection, including 1.7 million persons newly infected in 2018 (1).
Primary care for a panel of patients is a central component of population health, but the optimal panel size is unclear.
Myeloid neoplasms are a heterogenous group of neoplasms including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelodysplastic syndrome, and myeloproliferative neoplasms / myelodysplastic syndrome. Genetic abnormalities are used as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in patients with these diseases. Here, we describe the clinical validation of the Oncomine Myeloid Research (OMR) next-generation sequencing panel that interrogates for 40 genes and 29 fusion genes commonly seen in ...
Etiology-based diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is challenging. We evaluated whether peripheral microRNAs (miRNAs) could be used to characterize the DCM etiology. We investigated the miRNA plasma profiles of 254 subjects that comprised 5 groups: Healthy subjects (n = 70), idiopathic DCM patients (n = 55), ischemic DCM patients (n = 60) and 2 groups of patients with pathogenic variants responsible for familial DCM in the LMNA (LMNA, n = 37) and BAG3 (BAG3, n = 32) genes. Diagnost...
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) are all associated with significant mortality and cause huge expense to health care services around the world. Early, appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial for effective treatment. Syndromic diagnostic testing using novel, rapid multiplexed molecular platforms represents a new opportunity for rapidly targeted antimicrobial therapy to improve patient outcomes and facilitate antibiotic stewar...
Evaluation of BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARg alterations in different Bethesda diagnostic categories: A multicentric prospective study on the validity of the 7-gene panel test in 1172 thyroid FNAs deriving from different hospitals in South Italy.
Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a reliable and cost-effective diagnostic tool for establishing the nature of thyroid nodules, although up to 30% of FNAs are still classified as "indeterminate." Molecular testing of FNAs could improve preoperative diagnosis, thereby reducing unnecessary surgery. In this multicenter prospective study the authors investigated, using a 7-gene assay, the distribution and diagnostic impact of BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARg, the most frequent genomic alterations occ...
Carbon emissions generated by China's industrial sectors-a result of rapid industrialization and extensive use of coal-have raised the Chinese government's concerns. In this study, we use a panel dataset representing China's industrial sectors over 2000-2010 to analyze the effect of domestic R&D, technology acquisition, and technology assimilation on China's industrial carbon intensity using both linear and non-linear analysis. Conventional dynamic panel regression analyses based on the difference generaliz...
Families of infants with a positive newborn screen for cystic fibrosis (CFNBS+) have well-characterized genetic counseling needs, including understanding the implications of diagnostic categorization. However, degree of involvement of genetic counselors (GCs) in the CFNBS+ diagnostic resolution process varies. This project explored GC engagement with US CF care centers in the diagnostic resolution process for CFNBS+ infants. Surveys were emailed to 713 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation-accredited CF center directo...