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PubMed Journals Articles About "Craving Manipulation Cocaine Placebo Cocaine Unspecified" - Page: 2 RSS

01:13 EDT 24th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Craving Manipulation Cocaine Placebo Cocaine Unspecified" PubMed Articles 26–50 of 1,800+

Patisiran Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Exposure-Response Analyses in the Phase 3 APOLLO Trial in Patients With Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated (hATTR) Amyloidosis.

Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis is an inherited, rapidly progressive, life-threatening disease caused by deposition of abnormal transthyretin protein. Patisiran is an RNA interference therapeutic comprising a novel, small interfering ribonucleic acid (ALN-18328) formulated in a lipid nanoparticle targeted to inhibit hepatic transthyretin protein synthesis. The lipid nanoparticle also contains 2 novel lipid excipients (DLin-MC3-DMA and PEG -C-DMG). Here we report patisiran pharmacokinet...


Plants alter their vertical root distribution rather than biomass allocation in response to changing precipitation.

Elucidating the variation of allocation pattern of ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) and its underlying mechanisms are critically important for understanding the changes of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions. Under optimal partitioning theory, plants should allocate more NPP to the organ that acquires the most limiting resource, and this expectation has been widely used to explain and predict NPP allocation under changing precipitation. However, confirmatory evidence for this theory has ...

Glucocorticoids and Brown adipose tissue: Do glucocorticoids really inhibit thermogenesis?

A reduction in the thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is presently discussed as a possible determinant for the development of obesity in humans. One group of endogenous factors that could potentially affect BAT activity is the glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol). We analyse here studies examining the effects of alterations in glucocorticoid signaling on BAT recruitment and thermogenic capacity. We find that irrespective of which manipulation of glucocorticoid signaling is examined, a seemingly h...


Effect of moisture on wheat grains lipid patterns and infection with Fusarium graminearum.

Suitable conditions of temperature and humidity are required to maintain wheat grains quality, but during processing and storage, the grains can be exposed to adverse environmental conditions and presence of infectious fungi. Fusarium graminearum, the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight on wheat, affects crop yields and grain quality by alteration of their biochemical components and mycotoxin contamination, which reduces the possibilities of wheat end use and compromises food safety. Lipid degradation...

Readout of a dopant spin in the anisotropic quantum dot with a single magnetic ion.

Owing to exchange interaction between the exciton and magnetic ion, a quantum dot embedding
 a single magnetic ion is a great platform for optical control of individual spin. In particular, a quantum dot provides strong and sharp optical transitions, which give experimental access to spin states
 of an individual magnetic ion. We show, however, that physics of quantum dot excitons also complicate spin readout and optical spin manipulation in such a system. This is due to electron-hole&#1...

Separation of floating oil drops based on drop-liquid substrate interfacial tension.

Though various strategies exist for the transport of oil drops suspended on a liquid substrate, selective manipulation of different kind of drops based on their respective characteristics remains a challenge. In practical, it is possible to have multiple drops having different wetting states with the liquid substrate, whose separation is desired. In this work, we exploit curvature induced capillary forces for the selective manipulation (transport as well as separation) of oil droplets based on their interfa...

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances cerebrovascular CO reactivity in a sex-specific manner.

Insufficient nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction and increased NO has the potential to enhance cerebral blood flow (CBF). Dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate, a precursor of NO, could improve cerebrovascular function but this has not been investigated. In seventeen individuals, we examined the effects of a 7-day supplementation of dietary nitrate (0.1mmol/kg/day) on cerebrovascular function using a randomised, single-blinded placebo-controlled crossov...

A SENSITIVE LC-MS/MS ASSAY FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF METHADONE AND ITS METABOLITES IN DRIED BLOOD SPOTS: COMPARISON WITH PLASMA.

Methadone, a synthetic narcotic, is widely used both in adults and children for pain control, and as a replacement drug in opioid use disorder to prevent craving and withdrawal. To support clinical pharmacokinetic trials in neonates, infants, and children, the authors developed and validated a novel, automated, highly sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of methadone and its metabolites, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-di...

Assembling a plug-and-play production line for combinatorial biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides in Escherichia coli.

Polyketides are a class of specialised metabolites synthesised by both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These chemically and structurally diverse molecules are heavily used in the clinic and include frontline antimicrobial and anticancer drugs such as erythromycin and doxorubicin. To replenish the clinicians' diminishing arsenal of bioactive molecules, a promising strategy aims at transferring polyketide biosynthetic pathways from their native producers into the biotechnologically desirable host Escherichia coli...

Conditioned place avoidance using encapsulated calcium propionate as an appetite suppressant for broiler breeders.

Broiler breeders, the parent stock of meat chickens, are feed-restricted throughout the production cycle to avoid obesity-related problems in their health and reproductive performance. Broiler breeders often show signs of chronic hunger, lack of satiety and feeding frustration, and the development of alternative feeding strategies has investigated the inclusion of calcium propionate (CaP) as an appetite suppressant. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of voluntary feed intake are unknown, but are thoug...

Effects of single and repeated drought on soil microarthropods in a semi-arid ecosystem depend more on timing and duration than drought severity.

Soil moisture is one of the most important factors affecting soil biota. In arid and semi-arid ecosystems, soil mesofauna is adapted to temporary drought events, but, until now, we have had a limited understanding of the impacts of the different magnitudes and frequencies of drought predicted to occur according to future climate change scenarios. The present study focuses on how springtails and mites respond to simulated repeated drought events of different magnitudes in a field experiment in a Hungarian se...

Embracing Complexity in Defensive Networks.

The neural basis of defensive behaviors continues to attract much interest, not only because they are important for survival but also because their dysregulation may be at the origin of anxiety disorders. Recently, a dominant approach in the field has been the optogenetic manipulation of specific circuits or cell types within these circuits to dissect their role in different defensive behaviors. While the usefulness of optogenetics is unquestionable, we argue that this method, as currently applied, fosters ...

Sign-tracking behavior is difficult to extinguish and resistant to multiple cognitive enhancers.

The attribution of incentive-motivational value to drug-related cues underlies relapse and craving in drug addiction. One method of addiction treatment, cue-exposure therapy, utilizes repeated presentations of drug-related cues in the absence of drug (i.e., extinction learning); however, its efficacy has been limited due to an incomplete understanding of extinction and relapse processes after cues have been imbued with incentive-motivational value. To investigate this, we used a Pavlovian conditioned approa...

Dexmedetomidine to facilitate non-invasive ventilation after blunt chest trauma: a randomised, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled pilot study.

Although non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended in patients with chest trauma, this procedure may expose to discomfort and even failure due to agitation or excessive pain. We tested the impact of dexmedetomidine on the duration of the first session of NIV.

Modular Continuous Flow Synthesis of Imatinib and Analogues.

A modular continuous flow synthesis of imatinib and analogues is reported. Structurally diverse imatinib analogues are rapidly generated using three readily available building blocks via a flow hydration/chemoselective C-N coupling sequence. The newly developed continuous flow hydration and amidation modules each exhibit a broad scope with good to excellent yields. Overall, the method described does not require solvent switches, in-line purifications, or packed-bed apparatuses due to the judicious manipulat...

Effectiveness and safety of betrixaban extended prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism compared with standard-duration prophylaxis intervention in acute medically ill patients: a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis.

To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis using United States- (US) and Europe-approved anticoagulants relative to extended-duration VTE prophylaxis with betrixaban. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), unfractionated heparin (UFH), fondaparinux sodium and placebo were each compared to betrixaban, as standard-duration VTE prophylaxis for hospitalized, nonsurgical patients with acute medical illness at risk of VTE. A systematic literature review was con...

Adulterants in crack cocaine in Brazil.

Brazil is the world's biggest consumer of crack cocaine, and dependence is a major public health issue. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of potentially harmful adulterants present in hair samples from Brazilian patients with crack cocaine dependence.

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of a γ-secretase modulator, PF-06648671, on CSF amyloid-β peptides in randomized Phase 1 studies.

γ-Secretase modulators (GSMs) represent a promising therapy for Alzheimer's disease by reducing pathogenic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide production. Three Phase 1 studies (NCT02316756, NCT02407353, NCT02440100) investigated the safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of the oral GSM, PF-06648671. A PKPD indirect-response model was developed (using biomarker data) to simultaneously characterize differential effects of PF-6648671 on multiple Aβ species in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ...

The Lateral Hypothalamic and BNST GABAergic Projections to the Anterior Ventrolateral Periaqueductal Gray Regulate Feeding.

Overeating is a serious issue in modern society, causing many health problems, including obesity. Although the hypothalamus has been previously identified as the key brain structure that regulates body weight homeostasis, the downstream pathways and non-canonical neural circuitry involved in feeding behavior remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we discover that suppressing the activity of GABAergic cells in the anterior ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), whether directly or through long-projection ...

Effect of Rivastigmine (Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibitor) versus Placebo on Manic Episodes in Patients with Bipolar Disorders: Results from a Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

To treat patients with bipolar disorders (BPD) during the acute phase, the standard procedure is to administer lithium or sodium valproate. To further optimize treatment, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil and galantamine have gained increased interest, though with conflicting results. In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated whether, and to what extent, adjuvant rivastigmine might improve symptoms of mania in patients with BPD during the acu...

Striatal volume and functional connectivity correlate with weight gain in early-phase psychosis.

Second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) are essential in the treatment of psychotic disorders, but are well-known for inducing substantial weight gain and obesity. Critically, weight gain may reduce life expectancy for up to 20-30 years in patients with psychotic disorders, and prognostic biomarkers are generally lacking. Even though other receptors are also implicated, the dorsal striatum, rich in dopamine D2 receptors, which are antagonized by antipsychotic medications, plays a key role in the human ...

Beneficial Effects of Oral Lactobacillus on Pain Severity in Women Suffering from Endometriosis: A Pilot Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial.

This study assessed the effects of a lactobacillus-based medication on pain intensity scores in women with endometriosis.

Intravenous administration of ghrelin increases serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations in heavy-drinking alcohol-dependent individuals: Results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study.

Increasing evidence supports the role of appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Effects of ghrelin administration on cortisol and aldosterone, two hormones known to influence the development and maintenance of AUD, have been observed in ghrelin-exposed tissues or cells, as well as rodents and healthy volunteers, however whether these effects replicate in individuals with AUD is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous administration of ghrelin leads t...

Harmful effects of cocaine byproduct in the reproduction of sea urchin in different ocean acidification scenarios.

This study has as main objective assessing the toxicity of crack-cocaine combined with different scenarios of ocean acidification on fertilization rate and embryo-larval development of Echinometra lucunter sea urchin. Effects on early life stages were assessed at five different concentrations (6,25 mg.L; 12,5 mg.L; 25 mg.L; 50 mg.L and 100 mg.L) of crack-cocaine at four different pH values (8.5; 8.0; 7.5; 7.0). The pH values were achieved using two different methodologies: adding hydrochloric acid...

Long Noncoding RNAs of the Arterial Wall as Therapeutic Agents and Targets in Atherosclerosis.

Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) have been defined as transcripts which are > 200 ribonucleotides in size and are not translated into protein. Recent work has shown that many lncRNAs do have specific molecular functions and biological effects, and are involved in a growing number of diseases, including atherosclerosis. As a consequence, lncRNAs are also becoming interesting targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we focus on lncRNAs which are expressed in the arterial wall, and describe po...


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