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Showing "Exercise significantly increases size hippocampus humans study finds" PubMed Articles 476–500 of 76,000+

End-users want alternative intervention delivery models: Usability and acceptability of the REMOTE-CR exercise-based cardiac telerehabilitation programme.

Evaluate user experiences of an exercise-based cardiac telerehabilitation intervention (REMOTE-CR) that provided near universal access to real-time remote coaching and behavioural support from exercise specialists.

The long and winding road: Effects of exercise intensity and type upon sustained attention.

Aerobic exercise enhances the ability to sustain attention (peaking at moderate intensities) by stimulating noradrenergic activity, which affects the fronto-parietal attention network. Prior exercise studies examining attention have focused on the influence of exercise intensity, yet few studies have examined the influence of the type of exercise protocol administered. Here, we propose that sustained attention is greater during (a) moderate compared to low intensity exercise, and (b) moderate intensity exer...

Opening a "Wide" Window onto Taste Signal Transmission.

Taste bud cells for sweet, umami, and bitter transmit sensory signals without a synapse. A study by Ma et al. (2018) finds a key ATP-permeable pore-forming subunit required for rapid neurotransmission from the tongue to secondary taste neurons.

Comparison of prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason 5 and intraductal carcinoma of the prostate with tumor necrosis. A morphometric study.

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate(IDCP) is defined as a solid or cribriform neoplastic growth confined to ducts and acini, with preservation of the basal cell layer. Since IDCP can often present tumor necrosis (TN), it should be distinguished from Gleason 5 (GP5) invasive adenocarcinoma for staging and clinical purposes. In the present study we reviewed 344 radical prostatectomies performed at our institution and selected all cases with either >5% GP5 or IDCP for assessment of TN on histology slides (n...

The protective effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on the interference of procedural memory.

Numerous studies have reported a positive impact of acute exercise for procedural skill memory. Previous work has revealed this effect, but these findings are confounded by a potential contribution of a night of sleep to the reported exercise-mediated reduction in interference. Thus, it remains unclear if exposure to a brief bout of exercise can provide protection to a newly acquired motor memory. The primary objective of the present study was to examine if a single bout of moderate-intensity cardiovascular...

Maternal separation blunted spatial memory formation independent of peripheral and hippocampal insulin content in young adult male rats.

This study explores the effects of maternal separation as a chronic early life stress (ELS) on pancreatic islets insulin content and secretion, and their potential relationship with the hippocampus insulin content and spatial memory in young adulthood. Male rat offspring were divided into two groups: stress (STR) and non-stress (non-STR) groups. The animals of the STR group were separated from their mothers during postnatal days (PND) 1 to 21. During the weaning time, that is, PND-0 to PND-21, the body weig...

Alternative Splicing of the Xmas mRNA Encoding the mRNA Export Protein in Drosophila melanogaster.

It is shown that Drosophila melanogaster has Xmas mRNA whose alternative splicing leads to the formation of three transcripts: Xmas, Xmas-2, and Xmas-1. As a result, three proteins are synthesized: Xmas, Xmas-2, and, presumably, Xmas-1. The size of the Xmas protein is close to the size of its homologue in humans. Adult flies contain large amounts of this protein, whereas in embryos it is absent.

A Post-Exercise Facilitation of Executive Function is Independent of Aerobically Supported Metabolic Costs.

A single-bout of aerobic or resistance training facilitates executive function and is a benefit thought to be specific to exercise durations greater than 20minutes. We sought to determine whether an executive benefit is observed for a session as brief as 10-minutes, and whether distinct and participant-specific exercise intensities - and associated metabolic costs - influence the magnitude of the benefit. Participants completed exercise sessions - via cycle ergometer - at moderate (80% of lactate threshold ...

Effects of harmane during treadmill exercise on spatial memory of restraint-stressed mice.

Chronic stress induces hippocampal-dependent memory deficits, which can be counterbalanced with prolonged exercise. On the other hand, the β-carboline alkaloid harmane exerts potential in therapies for Alzheimer's and depression diseases and modulating neuronal responses to stress. The present study investigated the effect of chronic treatment of harmane alone or during treadmill running on spatial memory deficit in restraint-stressed mice. To examine spatial memory, adult male NMRI mice were subjected to ...

Intubating extremely premature newborns: a randomised crossover simulation study.

Determine whether tracheal intubation of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) neonates is more successful with a size-0 or size-00 Miller laryngoscope blade.

The temperature of water ingested before exercise alters the onset of physiological heat loss responses.

This study sought to determine whether the ingested water temperature prior to exercise alters the onset threshold and subsequent thermosensitivity of local vasomotor and sudomotor responses after exercise begins. Twenty males (age: 24±4 y, weight: 75.8±8.1 kg, VO: 52.3±7.7 mL·kg·min) ingested 3.2 ml·kg of 1.5°C, 37°C, or 50ºC water, rested 5 min, then cycled at 50% VO for 15 min at 23.0±0.9°C and 32±10%RH. Mean body temperature (T), local sweat rate (LSR) and skin blood flow (SBF) were measured...

Disruption of the NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit abolishes inflammation-induced depression.

Recent reports have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behaviour is mediated via NMDA receptor. In this study, we further investigated the role of GluN2 A subunit of NMDA receptor in synaptic processes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of GluN2 A knockout (KO) mice in LPS-induced depressive-like behavior. Our data suggest that LPS-treated mice, lacking GluN2 A subunit, did not exhibit depressive-like behaviour. This was accompanied by unaltered levels of IL...

Increase in insulin secretion and decrease in muscle degradation by fat-free milk intake are attenuated by physical exercise.

Protein intake, particularly branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), and exercise have opposing actions on insulin secretion, but the same action on protein anabolism. We examined the effects of BCAA-rich fat-free milk intake and/or exercise on levels of insulin secretion and indices related to muscle protein metabolism in order to assess the potency of dietary and exercise therapies against metabolic and locomotive disorders.

Sex dimorphism of substrate utilization: Differences in skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume density and function.

Fat oxidation during exercise is higher in females than males. We sought to determine whether sex differences in substrate metabolism are paralleled by distinct skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume density and oxidative capacity. Whole-body substrate (fat, carbohydrate (CHO)) utilization during submaximal treadmill running was assessed and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine mitochondrial volume density (Mito) and function in healthy young females (n = 12) and males (n = 12) matched by aero...

Implementing a structured exercise program for persistent concussion symptoms: a pilot study on the effects on salivary brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cognition, static balance, and symptom scores.

Persistent concussion symptoms (PCS) affect 10-30% of individuals after sports-related concussion. This study evaluated the effect of exercise-based rehabilitation on symptom scores, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cognitive functions and static balance in a sample of participants with PCS.

The behaviour of overweight dogs shows similarity with personality traits of overweight humans.

Excessive food intake and the resulting excess weight gain is a growing problem in human and canine populations. Dogs, due to their shared living environment with humans, may provide a beneficial model to study the causes and consequences of obesity. Here, we make use of two well-established research paradigms (two-way choice paradigm and cognitive bias test), previously applied with dogs, to investigate the role of obesity and obesity-prone breeds for food responsiveness. We found no evidence of breed diff...

Accelerometry-Derived Relative Exercise Intensities in Elite Women's Basketball.

This study assessed accelerometry-derived relative exercise intensity during elite women's basketball match play. The influence of player position/role and match period on relative exercise intensities was evaluated. Ten basketballers wore accelerometers during a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo-IR1) and 18 competitive matches. Relative exercise intensity was quantified using predicted oxygen consumption reserve determined using correlations from Yo-Yo-IR1. Total time, bout frequency and bout duratio...

Temporal dissociation between muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics: influences of perfusion dynamics and arteriovenous oxygen concentration differences in muscles and lungs.

The aim of the study was to test whether or not the arteriovenous oxygen concentration difference (avDO) kinetics at the pulmonary (avDOpulm) and muscle (avDOmusc) levels is significantly different during dynamic exercise.

Antigenic sites in influenza H1 hemagglutinin display species-specific immunodominance.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers are a major correlate of protection for influenza-related illness. The influenza virus hemagglutinin possesses antigenic sites that are the targets of HI active antibodies. Here, a panel of mutant viruses each lacking a classically defined antigenic site was created to compare the species-specific immunodominance of the antigenic sites in a clinically relevant hemagglutinin. HI active antibodies of antisera from influenza-virus infected mice targeted sites Sb and Ca2....

Harvesting changes mating behaviour in European lobster.

Removing individuals from a wild population can affect the availability of prospective mates and the outcome of competitive interactions, with subsequent effects on mating patterns and sexual selection. Consequently, the rate of harvest-induced evolution is predicted to be strongly dependent on the strength and dynamics of sexual selection, yet there is limited empirical knowledge on the interplay between selective harvesting and the mating systems of exploited species. In this study, we used genetic parent...

Effects of swimming exercise on the extinction of fear memory in rats.

We investigated the relation between swimming exercise and fear memory extinction. Rats that performed regular swimming exercise over 6 wk underwent fear conditioning. Twenty-eight days later, they were submitted to extinction tests. Swimming rats had enhanced extinction process throughout the 5 days of the extinction test compared with sedentary rats. This suggests that the swimming exercise accelerated the process of aversive memory extinction, reducing the expression of conditioned fear behavior. These r...

Sexual size dimorphism and sex ratio in arthropod ectoparasites: contrasting patterns at different hierarchical scales.

The aims of this study were to determine whether sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in fleas and gamasid mites (i) conforms to Rensch's rule (allometry of SSD) and (ii) covaries with sex ratio (SR) in infrapopulations (conspecific parasites harboured by an individual host), xenopopulations (conspecific parasites harboured by a population of a given host species in a locality) and suprapopulations (conspecific parasites harboured by an entire host community in a locality). Rensch's rule in SSD was tested across 15...

North American Society for Pediatric Exercise Medicine (NASPEM) 2018 Conference Abstracts.

Exercise-Induced Changes to the Macrophage Response in the Dorsal Root Ganglia Prevent Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces neuropathic pain that is refractory to treatment. The central and peripheral immune response to SCI play critical roles in pain development. While immune responses in the dorsal horn have been implicated in SCI-pain, immune mechanisms in the periphery, especially in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), where nociceptor cell bodies reside, have not been well studied. Exercise is an immunomodulator, and we showed previously that early exercise after SCI reduces pain development. How...

Combined mineral-supplemented diet and exercise increases bone mass and strength after eight weeks and maintains increases after eight weeks detraining in adult mice.

Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone mass and structural strength even after cessation. Combining exercise with a calcium- and phosphorus-supplemented diet increases cortical bone mineral content (BMC), area, and yield force more than exercise alone in adult mice. These increases could also be maintained after stopping exercise if the modified diet is maintained. It was hypothesized that combining exercise with a mineral-supplemented diet would lead to greater cortical BMC, area, and yield force immed...

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