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Showing "Steps Editors Calling" PubMed Articles 476–500 of 1,900+

Synthesis of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives via asymmetric Michael addition reactions of carboxylate-substituted enones.

To concisely synthesize highly enantiomerically enriched 5-alkyl-substituted pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acids, organocatalytic enantioselective Michael addition reactions of 4-alkyl-substituted 4-oxo-2-enoates with nitroalkanes have been developed. Using the developed reaction method, 5-methylpyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid with 97% ee was obtained in two steps.

Cobalt-Catalyzed Electrophilic Amination of Aryl- and Heteroaryl-Zinc Pivalates with N-Hydroxylamine Benzoates.

Aryl- and heteroaryl-zinc pivalates are aminated with O-benzoylhydroxylamines at 25 °C within 2-4 h in the presence of 2-5% CoCl2*2LiCl furnishing the corresponding tertiary arylated or heteroarylated amines in good yields. This electrophilic amination provides also an access to diarylamines and aryl(heteroaryl)amines. A new tuberculosis drug candidate (Q203) was prepared in 6 steps and 56% overall yield using this cobalt-catalyzed amination as the key step.

The General Adaptation Syndrome: A Foundation for the Concept of Periodization.

Recent reviews have attempted to refute the efficacy of applying Selye's general adaptation syndrome (GAS) as a conceptual framework for the training process. Furthermore, the criticisms involved are regularly used as the basis for arguments against the periodization of training. However, these perspectives fail to consider the entirety of Selye's work, the evolution of his model, and the broad applications he proposed. While it is reasonable to critically evaluate any paradigm, critics of the GAS have yet ...

Effect of the Various Steps in the Processing of Human Milk in the Concentrations of IgA, IgM, and Lactoferrin.

Human milk immune components are unique and important for the development of the newborn. Milk processing at the Human Milk Banks (HMB), however, causes partial destruction of immune proteins. The objective of this study was to determine the effects that heating during the milk processing procedure at the HMB had on the concentrations of IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin at three critical points in time.

Synthesis of Thelepamide via Catalyst-Controlled 1,4-Addition of Cysteine Derivatives and Structure Revision of Thelepamide.

The first enantioselective total synthesis and structural reassignment of (-)-thelepamide, a cytotoxic tetraketide-amino acid from the marine worm Thelepus crispus, is reported. A convergent approach provides access to all thelepamide diastereomers in six steps from four simple building blocks. Key features of the synthesis include the application of Melchiorre's organocatalytic thia-Michael reaction and a sonication-assisted assembly of an unprecedented N,O-acetal-hemiacetal moiety. The corrected structure...

The building blocks of successful translation of proteomics to the clinic.

Recently, the first two multiplexed tests using selective reaction monitoring (SRM-MS) mass spectrometry have entered clinical practice. Despite different areas of indication, risk stratification in lung cancer and preterm birth, they share multiple steps in their development strategies. Here we review these strategies and their implications for successful translation of biomarkers to clinical practice. We believe that the identification of blood protein panels for the identification of disease phenotypes i...

HIV Infection: Antepartum Treatment and Management.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which became pandemic in the early 1980s. Since its initial characterization, advancements in diagnosis and management have transformed HIV infection from a terminal diagnosis to a chronic, manageable condition. Effective antiretroviral therapy, acting at multiple steps in the viral lifecycle, durably suppresses viral replication, preserves maternal health and prevents mother to child HIV transmission. Here, we review the salient clinical and ethical consid...

Direct Access to Highly Functionalized Heterocycles through the Condensation of Cyclic Imines and α-Oxoesters.

A facile, gram-scale preparation of 2-hydroxy-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-3H-pyrrolizin-3-ones and 2-hydroxy-6,7,8,8a-tetrahydroindolizin-3(5H)-ones from a condensation cyclization of α-oxoesters with five- and six-membered cyclic imines, respectively, is reported. This transformation enables a concise, three-step synthesis of the natural products phenopyrrozin and p-hydroxyphenopyrrozin. Further, biologically relevant scaffolds, such as α-quaternary β-homo prolines and β-lactams, are also prepared in two- to t...

Mouse Model for Pancreas Transplantation Using a Modified Cuff Technique.

Mouse models have several advantages in transplantation research, including easy handling, a variety of genetically well-defined strains, and the availability of the widest range of molecular probes and reagents to perform in vivo as well as in vitro studies. Based on our experience with various murine transplantation models, we developed a heterotopic pancreas transplantation model in mice with the intent to analyze mechanisms underlying severe ischemia reperfusion injury-associated early graft damage. In ...

Reducing causes of inequity: policies focused on social determinants of health during generational transitions in Colombia.

Health inequalities often result from social inequities, and those, in turn, are generated by social determinants of health (SDoH). Hence, to reduce health inequalities, it is necessary to consider all health-related determinants. Disadvantages arise even before birth, and they tend to accumulate throughout an individual's life. Thus, policy actions intended to overcome these health inequalities should take place before birth and continue throughout life. This review aimed to describe the first steps of tha...

Development of a fast HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous quantitation of three immunosuppressant drugs in whole blood samples using intelligent chemometrics resolving of coeluting peaks in the presence of blood interferences.

The present study describes a fast high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection analytical methodology for quantification of tacrolimus, everolimus and cyclosporine A in whole blood samples, with minimum sample preparation steps. A short isocratic chromatographic elution was coupled with second-order calibration using multivariate curve resolution to stablish a smart and green methodology. Due to presence of matrix effect, a sample-added calibration strategy was used for quantification purpo...

Preparation of new β-D-xyloside- and β-D-xylobioside-based ionic liquids through chemical and/or enzymatic reactions.

Several tetraalkylphosphonium and tetraalkylammonium salts containing xyloside- and xylobioside-based anionic moieties have been prepared. Two stereoselective routes have been developed: i) a chemical pathway in four steps from D-xylose, and ii) a chemoenzymatic pathway directly from biomass-derived xylans. These salts displayed interesting properties as ionic liquids. Their structures have been correlated to their thermal properties (melting, glass transition and decomposition temperatures).

Universal Applicability of the Furlow Palatoplasty: Resident as Primary Surgeon in a Consecutive, Nonselective Series.

Questions persist regarding the general applicability of the Furlow palatoplasty technique, and thus, widespread adoption of its use has been uneven. This study describes a consecutive, nonselective series of primary Furlow palatoplasties. Highlighted is the unique fact that plastic surgical residents functioned as the primary surgeon for all steps of all procedures throughout the series.

Preliminary concurrent validity of the Fitbit-Zip and ActiGraph activity monitors for measuring steps in people with polymyalgia rheumatica.

Activity monitors provide objective measurements of physical activity, however, the accuracy of these devices in people with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain preliminary evidence of the accuracy of two activity monitors and explore if clinical and gait-related factors altered device accuracy in people with PMR.

Development of a Colorectal Cancer Screening Intervention for Iranian Adults: Appling Intervention Mapping

Background: While the incidence rate of the colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing over the last three decades in Iran, very limited interventions to increase CRC screening have been developed for Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of Intervention Mapping (IM) for applying theory and evidence and considering local contexts to develop a CRC screening program among adults in Iran. Materials and Methods: From April 2014 to July 2016 following the IM process, six steps we...

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of a vitelline vein aneurysm.

We report a case of vitelline vein aneurysm detected at 23 weeks of gestation. Few postnatal cases of vitelline vein aneurysm have been reported; however, due to their similar appearances most of them were considered initially as umbilical vein dilatations. The accurate prenatal diagnosis of vitelline vein aneurysm and early postnatal surgical treatment are crucial steps to prevent postnatal obliterative extension of thrombosis that might cause severe neonatal morbidity.

Posture alteration as a measure to accommodate uneven ground in able-bodied gait.

Though the effects of imposed trunk posture on human walking have been studied, less is known about such locomotion while accommodating changes in ground level. For twelve able participants, we analyzed kinematic parameters mainly at touchdown and toe-off in walking across a 10-cm visible drop in ground level (level step, pre-perturbation step, step-down, step-up) with three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed step-specific ...

Speech Intelligibility and Personality Peer-ratings of Young Adults With Cochlear Implants.

Speech intelligibility, or how well a speaker's words are understood by others, affects listeners' judgments of the speaker's competence and personality. Deaf cochlear implant (CI) users vary widely in speech intelligibility, and their speech may have a noticeable "deaf" quality, both of which could evoke negative stereotypes or judgments from peers. In this study, college students with typical hearing (TH) used semantic differential scales to rate speech samples of highly-intelligible TH young adults and a...

Hi-Plex for Simple, Accurate, and Cost-Effective Amplicon-based Targeted DNA Sequencing.

Hi-Plex is a suite of methods to enable simple, accurate, and cost-effective highly multiplex PCR-based targeted sequencing (Nguyen-Dumont et al., Biotechniques 58:33-36, 2015). At its core is the principle of using gene-specific primers (GSPs) to "seed" (or target) the reaction and universal primers to "drive" the majority of the reaction. In this manner, effects on amplification efficiencies across the target amplicons can, to a large extent, be restricted to early seeding cycles. Product sizes are define...

Genome-Wide Association Mapping Analyses Applied to Polyamines.

Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) allow the use of natural variation to understand the genetics controlling specific traits. Efficient methods to conduct GWAS in plants have been reported. This chapter provides the main steps to conduct and analyse GWAS in Arabidopsis thaliana using polyamine levels as trait. This approach is suitable for the discovery of genes that modulate the levels of polyamines, and can be used in combination with different types of stress.

Amyloid-like protein nanofibrous membranes as a sensing layer infrastructure for the design of mass-sensitive biosensors.

Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) have been used in the literature for mass sensitive biosensor applications. However, their performance, reliability and stability have been limited by the chemical treatment steps required for the functionalization and activation of the QCM surface, prior to antibody immobilization. Specifically, these steps cause increased film thickness, which diminishes performance by mass overload, and create a harsh environment, which reduces biological activity. In this work, we eli...

Fully Disposable Manufacturing Concepts for Clinical and Commercial Manufacturing and Ballroom Concepts.

The availability and use of pre-sterilized disposables has greatly changed the methods used in biopharmaceuticals development and production, particularly from mammalian cell culture. Nowadays, almost all process steps from cell expansion, fermentation, cell removal, and purification to formulation and storage of drug substances can be carried out in disposables, although there are still limitations with single-use technologies, particularly in the areas of pretesting and quality control of disposables, bag...

Complete Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli KRX, a Strain for Efficient Cloning and High-Yield Expression of Proteins under Control of the T7 RNA Polymerase.

Escherichia coli KRX is a strain offering both a high transformation efficiency and the possibility to produce the target protein to high yields in one host, avoiding additional cloning steps. Here, the draft genome sequence of E. coli KRX is presented and provides the genetic basis for additional biotechnological applications.

Culture Embrained: Going Beyond the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy.

Over the past three decades, the cultural psychology literature has established that there is systematic cultural variation in the nature of agency in the domains of cognition, emotion, and motivation. This literature adopted both self-report and performance-based (or behavioral) indicators of these processes, which set the stage for a more recent systematic exploration of cultural influences at the neural and biological level. Moreover, previous work has largely focused on East-West differences, thereby ca...

Ultra-compact bent multimode silicon waveguide with ultralow inter-mode crosstalk.

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a sharply bent multimode silicon waveguide by introducing a pair of mode converters. The principle of the multimode bend is based on the eigenmode conversion between straight and bent waveguides, and the particle swarm optimization is adopted to engineer the geometry. The device is fabricated on the standard silicon-on-insulator platform using one lithography/etching, and no additional steps are required. The measured results show that the insertion loss is

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