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Showing "Steps Editors Calling" PubMed Articles 476–500 of 1,800+

Culture Embrained: Going Beyond the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy.

Over the past three decades, the cultural psychology literature has established that there is systematic cultural variation in the nature of agency in the domains of cognition, emotion, and motivation. This literature adopted both self-report and performance-based (or behavioral) indicators of these processes, which set the stage for a more recent systematic exploration of cultural influences at the neural and biological level. Moreover, previous work has largely focused on East-West differences, thereby ca...

Effective Dynamic Range and Retest Reliability of Dark-Adapted Two-Color Fundus-Controlled Perimetry in Patients With Macular Diseases.

To determine the effective dynamic range (EDR), retest reliability, and number of discriminable steps (DS) for mesopic and dark-adapted two-color fundus-controlled perimetry (FCP) using the S-MAIA (Scotopic-Macular Integrity Assessment) "micro-perimeter."

SMS: Smart Model Selection in PhyML.

Model selection using likelihood-based criteria (e.g. AIC) is one of the first steps in phylogenetic analysis. One must select both a substitution matrix and a model for rates across sites. A simple method is to test all combinations and select the best one. We describe heuristics to avoid these extensive calculations. Runtime is divided by ∼2 with results remaining nearly the same, and the method performs well compared to ProtTest and jModelTest2. Our software, "Smart Model Selection" (SMS), is implement...

Bulla Down Endoscopic Sphenoidotomy.

Surgical approach to the sphenoid sinus is still one of the most challenging steps in sinus surgery. The author describes a novel, simple, and safe technique to access sphenoid sinus to manage isolated sphenoid pathologies or approach skull base by removing the bulla ethmoidalis and temporarily lateralizing the middle turbinate during endoscopic sinus surgery. The current approach provides an effective method to access the sphenoid sinus without increasing morbidity and avoids unnecessary possible complicat...

Bone cyst formation after ankle arthroplasty may be caused by stress shielding. A numerical simulation of the strain adaptive bone remodelling.

The history of total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has different evolution steps to improve the outcome. The third generation implants show an overall 8-year survival rate up to 93%. The main reported reason for early failure of TAA is aseptic loosening, cyst formation is also frequently reported. The aim of the present study is to use the finite element (FE) method to analyze the adaptive bone remodeling processes, including cyst formation after TAA.

Current assessment of newborn hearing screening protocols.

The objective of this article is to assess current newborn hearing screening protocols. We will focus on technologies or modalities used, protocol steps, training of screeners, timing of first screen, and loss to follow-up. A summary of program reports focusing on protocols from Greece, China, South Africa, France, Spain, South Korea, Denmark, Italy, Turkey, Taiwan, South Korea, Poland and Iran as they are recently reported will also be presented.

Highly selective one-step dehydration, decarboxylation and hydrogenation of citric acid to methylsuccinic acid.

The one-step dehydration, decarboxylation and hydrogenation of the bio-based and widely available citric acid is presented. This reaction sequence yields methylsuccinic acid with yields of up to 89%. Optimal balances between the reaction rates of the different steps were found by varying the hydrogenation catalyst and the reaction parameters (H2 pressure, pH, temperature, time and catalyst-to-substrate ratio).

Adjuvants for Animal Vaccines.

Vaccines are essential tools for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in animals. One of the most important steps in vaccine development is the selection of a suitable adjuvant. The focus of this review is the adjuvants used in vaccines for animals. We will discuss current commercial adjuvants and experimental formulations with attention to mineral salts, emulsions, bacterial-derived components, saponins, and several other immunoactive compounds. In addition, we will also examine the mechanisms...

Who's calling? Social networks and mobile phone use among motorcyclists.

Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle poses a key safety risk, particularly among younger people who have been found to be more susceptible to distracted driving. While previous research has examined the influence of social networks on mobile phone use while driving a car, no research has explored this association in the context of motorcycle use. Using a survey of university students in Vietnam, this research explores the association between social networks and mobile phone use among motorcyclists and...

The Parasol Protocol: An Implementation Science Study of HIV Continuum of Care Interventions for Gay Men and Transgender Women in Burma/Myanmar.

Efforts to improve HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with HIV and reduce onward transmission of HIV rely on innovative interventions along multiple steps of the HIV care continuum. These innovative methods are particularly important for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated among key populations, and national efforts now focus on reducing stigma and improving engagement of...

Bioinspired Total Synthesis of Homodimericin A.

Homodimericin A is a remarkable fungal metabolite, and a highly oxygenated and racemic unsaturated polyketide. It poses a significant synthetic challenge due to its sterically demanding central cage-like core bearing eight contiguous stereogenic centers (including three contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocenters), and several carbonyl functionalities. Based on its proposed biogenetic synthesis, we designed a bioinspired total synthesis of homodimericin A that proceeds in seven steps, featuring a double ...

Noise Reduction and Functional Maps Image Quality Improvement in Dynamic CT Perfusion Using a New K-Means Clustering Guided Bilateral Filter (KMGB).

Dynamic CT perfusion (CTP) consists in repeated acquisitions of the same volume in different time steps, slightly before, during and slightly afterwards the injection of contrast media. Important functional information can be derived for each voxel, which reflect the local hemodynamic properties and hence the metabolism of the tissue. Different approaches are being investigated to exploit data redundancy and prior knowledge for noise reduction of such datasets, ranging from iterative reconstruction schemes ...

α-Radical Phosphines: Synthesis, Structure and Reactivity.

A series of phosphines featuring a persistent radical were synthesized in two steps by condensation of dialkyl-/diarylchlorophosphines with stable cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (cAACs) followed by one-electron reduction of the corresponding cationic intermediates. Structural, spectroscopic and computational data indicate that the spin density in these phosphines is mainly localized on the original carbene carbon from the cAAC fragment; thus, it remains in the α-position to the central phosphorus. The poten...


The ability of cardiomyocytes to recover from a proton load was examined in the hearts of exercise-trained (T) and sedentary control (C) rats in CO2/HCO3--free media. Acidosis was created by the NH4Cl pre-pulse technique and pHi was determined using fluorescence microscopy on carboxy-SNARF-1 AM loaded isolated cardiomyocytes. CO2-independent intracellular pH buffering capacity (βi) was measured by incrementally reducing the [NH4Cl]o in steps of 50% from 20 to 1.25 mM. βi increased as pHi decreased in both...

Synthesis of the C(1)-C(13) Fragment of Leiodermatolide via Hydrogen-Mediated C-C Bond Formation.

The C(1)-C(13) fragment of the antimitotic marine macrolide leiodermatolide is prepared in seven steps via hydrogenative and transfer-hydrogenative reductive C-C couplings. A hydrogen-mediated reductive coupling of acetylene with a Roche-type aldehyde is used to construct C(7)-C(13). A 2-propanol-mediated reductive coupling of allyl acetate with (E)-2-methylbut-2-enal at a low loading of iridium (1 mol %) is used to construct C(1)-C(6), which is converted to an allylsilane using Oestereich's copper-catalyze...

HOCOMOCO: towards a complete collection of transcription factor binding models for human and mouse via large-scale ChIP-Seq analysis.

We present a major update of the HOCOMOCO collection that consists of patterns describing DNA binding specificities for human and mouse transcription factors. In this release, we profited from a nearly doubled volume of published in vivo experiments on transcription factor (TF) binding to expand the repertoire of binding models, replace low-quality models previously based on in vitro data only and cover more than a hundred TFs with previously unknown binding specificities. This was achieved by systematic mo...

Removing user fees for health services: A multi-epistemological perspective on access inequities in Senegal.

Plan Sésame (PS) is a user fee exemption policy launched in 2006 to provide free access to health services to Senegalese citizens aged 60 and over. Analysis of a large household survey evaluating PS echoes findings of other studies showing that user fee removal can be highly inequitable. 34 semi-structured interviews and 19 focus group discussions with people aged 60 and over were conducted in four regions in Senegal (Dakar, Diourbel, Matam and Tambacounda) over a period of six months during 2012. They wer...

Increasing physical activity through an Internet-based motivational intervention supported by pedometers in a sample of sedentary students: A randomised controlled trial.

The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an Internet-based motivational intervention (IMI) supported by pedometers (in comparison with IMI alone and non-intervention) on increasing daily steps and changing constructs related to physical activity (PA) in a sample of sedentary students.

Gating mass cytometry data by deep learning.

Mass cytometry or CyTOF is an emerging technology for high-dimensional multiparameter single cell analysis that overcomes many limitations of fluorescence-based flow cytometry. New methods for analyzing CyTOF data attempt to improve automation, scalability, performance and interpretation of data generated in large studies. Assigning individual cells into discrete groups of cell types (gating) involves time-consuming sequential manual steps, untenable for larger studies.

Technique Tricks for the Gleich-Koutsogiannis Surgical Procedure for Correction of the Adult Acquired Flatfoot.

Gleich-Koutsogiannis is a widely known extra-articular closing calcaneal osteotomic technique for correction of the adult flatfoot. Absolute care must be observed during each procedural step to avoid undesirable drawbacks, such as nerves and tendons lesions, incorrect fixation, and hardware painful prominence. It is the purpose of this report to introduce tricks to critical steps in order to improve the technique and minimize potential surgical complications.

Cystatin C deficiency suppresses tumor growth in a breast cancer model through decreased proliferation of tumor cells.

Cysteine cathepsins are proteases that, in addition to their important physiological functions, have been associated with multiple pathologies, including cancer. Cystatin C (CstC) is a major endogenous inhibitor that regulates the extracellular activity of cysteine cathepsins. We investigated the role of cystatin C in mammary cancer using CstC knockout mice and a mouse model of breast cancer induced by expression of the polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) in the mammary epithelium. We showed that the ablati...

A Tetracyclic Octaphosphane R2P8 (R = (DDP)GaBr) by Subsequent Addition, Inversion and Condensation Reactions.

The first isolated example of an octaphosphane of type R2P8 (R = (DDP)Ga) is obtained by treatment of cage compound (DDP)GaP4 (2, DDP = (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)(4-((2,6-di¬iso¬propyl-phenyl)imino)pent-2-en-2-yl)amide) with (C6F5)2PBr. The initially formed endo-exo butterfly shaped pentaphosphane 7 rapidly rearranges to the more stable exo-exo isomer 8 which undergoes dimerization to decaphosphane 11. Compound 11 unexpectedly eliminates tetraaryldiphosphane 13 to give tetracyclo[,7.04,6]octaphosphan...

Contamination of dried blood spots - an underestimated risk in newborn screening.

Newborn screening (NBS) is an established screening procedure in many countries worldwide, aiming at the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism. For decades, dried blood spots have been the standard specimen for NBS. The procedure of blood collection is well described and standardized and includes many critical pre-analytical steps. We examined the impact of contamination of some anticipated common substances on NBS results obtained from dry spot samples. This possible pre-analytical source of uncer...

Tuning Paramagnetic Spin Excitations of Single Adatoms.

We predict the existence of paramagnetic spin excitations (PSE) in nonmagnetic single adatoms. Our calculations demonstrate that PSE develop a well-defined structure in the meV region when the adatom's Stoner criterion for magnetism is close to the critical point. We further reveal a subtle tunability and enhancement of PSE by external magnetic fields. Finally, we show how PSE can be detected as moving steps in the dI/dV signal of inelastic scanning tunneling spectroscopy, opening a potential route for expe...

Preparation of Solid Polyfunctional Alkynylzinc Pivalates with Enhanced Air and Moisture Stability for Organic Synthesis.

We report the preparation of solid and air-stable poly-functionalized alkynylzinc pivalates from the corresponding alkynes using TMPZnOPiv (TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl) as base. These organozinc pivalates are obtained as powders under mild conditions in excellent yields that can be manipulated in air for several hours without significant decomposition. These zinc reagents show an excellent reactivity in various carbon-carbon bond forming reactions including 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions. Such an alkynyl...

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