PubMed Journals Articles About "Treatment Of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Infections With Interferon Gamma" - Page: 20 RSS

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Showing "Treatment Tuberculous Mycobacterial Infections With Interferon Gamma" PubMed Articles 476–500 of 32,000+

Comparison of DNA extraction methods for drug susceptibility testing by allele-specific primer extension on a microsphere-based platform: Chelex-100 (in-house and commercialized) and MagPurix TB DNA Extraction Kit.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infections of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex, is the ninth leading cause of death worldwide, and several molecular approaches for MTB species identification and the detection of mutations associated with drug resistance have been developed to date. We previously developed a diagnostic assay for drug susceptibility testing that can detect mutations conferring resistance to anti-TB drugs using allele-specific primer extension on a microsphere-based platform for multi...

Changes in Prevalence of Health Care-Associated Infections in U.S. Hospitals.

A point-prevalence survey that was conducted in the United States in 2011 showed that 4% of hospitalized patients had a health care-associated infection. We repeated the survey in 2015 to assess changes in the prevalence of health care-associated infections during a period of national attention to the prevention of such infections.

Catheter-Related Trichosporon asahii Bloodstream Infection in a Neutropenic Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

Because primary antifungal prophylaxis is widely used for immunocompromised hosts, the incidences of unusual fungal infections have increased. Trichosporon asahii has emerged as an important life-threatening opportunistic systemic pathogen because of the increased use of cytotoxic or immunosuppressant agents, along with high mortality rates. Here, we describe a case of catheter-related T. asahii bloodstream infection with multiple septic skin nodules in both the arms and legs of the patient who was in the n...

Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection risk in medical tourism.

The increasing popularity of medical tourism among US citizens has led to the rising incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections from cosmetic surgery performed in other countries. Clinicians must be aware of these infections and the potential difficulties in treating them. The most common NTM species isolated from cutaneous infections in medical tourists is Mycobacterium abscessus. Because many NTM species are antibiotic resistant, combination therapy is needed to combat skin and soft-tissue ...

Low-frequency alternating current stimulation rhythmically suppresses gamma-band oscillations and impairs perceptual performance.

Low frequency oscillations such as alpha (8-12 Hz) are hypothesized to rhythmically gate sensory processing, reflected by 40-100 Hz gamma band activity, via the mechanism of pulsed inhibition. We applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (TACS) at individual alpha frequency (IAF) and flanking frequencies (IAF-4 Hz, IAF+4 Hz) to the occipital cortex of healthy human volunteers during concurrent magnetoencephalography (MEG), while participants performed a visual detection task inducing strong ga...

Defective Dendritic Cell Cytotoxic Activity of High-Grade Glioma Patients' Results from the Low Expression of Membrane TNFα and Can Be Corrected In Vitro by Treatment with Recombinant IL-2 or Exogenic Double-Stranded DNA.

Besides initiation of tumor-specific T cell immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) are endowed with tumoricidal activity. Previously, we showed that monocyte-derived DCs of high-grade glioma patients generated in the presence of interferon alpha (IFNα) (IFN-DCs) have impaired cytotoxic activity against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-sensitive HEp-2 tumor cells. Herein, we demonstrate that decreased transmembrane TNFα (tmTNFα) expression, but not soluble TNFα (sTNFα) production by high-grade glioma patien...

Extrapulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease Surveillance - Oregon, 2014-2016.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), ubiquitous in soil and water, usually infect immunocompromised persons. However, even healthy persons are susceptible to infection through percutaneous inoculation. Although 77% of NTM diseases manifest as primarily pulmonary illnesses (1), NTM also infect skin, bones, joints, the lymphatic system, and soft tissue. NTM infections can have incubation periods that exceed 5 years (2), often require prolonged treatment, and can lead to sepsis and death. Extrapulmonary NTM outb...

Impact of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Urinary Tract Infection Prophylaxis on Non-UTI Infections.

In this secondary analysis of the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) cohort, we found that daily prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not associated with an increased or decreased risk of skin and soft tissue infections, pharyngitis or sino-pulmonary infections in otherwise healthy children aged 2-71 months.

Interferon Consensus Sequence-Binding Protein 8, a Tumor Suppressor, Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Interacting with the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

Interferon consensus sequence-binding protein 8 (IRF8) belongs to a family of interferon (IFN) regulatory factors that modulates various important physiological processes including carcinogenesis. As reported by others and our group, IRF8 expression is silenced by DNA methylation in both human solid tumors and hematological malignancies. However, the role of IRF8 in lung carcinoma remains elusive. In this study, we determined IRF8 epigenetic regulation, biological functions, and the signaling pathway involv...

Mycobacterial Lipids Induce Calcium Mobilization and Degranulation of Mast Cells.

Evaluation of LL-37 antimicrobial peptide derivatives alone and in combination with vancomycin against S. aureus.

Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections continues to be a challenge due to antimicrobial resistance. Endogenous antimicrobial peptides may offer a new option for treating S. aureus infections but several factors limit their clinical utility. Herein, we studied the activity of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and two truncated derivatives, LL-13 and LL-17 alone and in combination with vancomycin against a range of drug-resistant S. aureus strains including methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vanc...

Effect of high glucose on cytokine production by human peripheral blood immune cells and type I interferon signaling in monocytes: Implications for the role of hyperglycemia in the diabetes inflammatory process and host defense against infection.

The major metabolic feature of diabetes is hyperglycemia which has been linked to the diabetes inflammatory processes, and diabetes-related vulnerability to infection. In the present study, we assessed how glucose affected PBMCs in type I interferon (IFN) production and subsequent signaling. We found that the moderately elevated glucose promoted, and high glucose suppressed type I IFN production, respectively. Pre-exposure to high glucose rendered monocytes more sensitive to IFN-α stimulation with heighten...

Local tumor control and clinical symptoms after Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for residual and recurrent vestibular schwannomas.

The use of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or residual Vestibular schwannoma (VS) after microsurgery (MS) has been investigated in several retrospective studies. The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for both neurological deterioration and tumor progression after GKRS for previously operated VS in a prospective setting.

Mycobacterium abscessus: A Rare Cause of Periprosthetic Knee Joint Infection.

A 61-year-old woman with a periprosthetic knee joint infection caused by Mycobacterium abscessus was successfully treated with surgical débridement, multidrug antimicrobial therapy, and staged reimplantation. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first report of successfully treating this organism after knee arthroplasty. M. abscessus knee infections are rare, and there are no specific guidelines to inform treatment or successful treatment regimens for periprosthetic knee infections. Medical manag...

Patient Distress in Women with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: How Can Physicians Better Meet Patients Needs?

Recurrent urinary tract infections are a common condition that can impact patients' quality of life. The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze the literature regarding the distress that these infections can cause to patients and provide guidance to clinicians on how to improve care of these patients.

Antimicrobial approaches in the prevention of Staphylococcus aureus infections: a review.

The prophylactic application of antimicrobials that are active against Staphylococcus aureus can prevent infections. However, implementation in clinical practice is limited. We have reviewed antimicrobial approaches for the prevention of S. aureus infections.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2017 Guidelines for Prevention of Surgical Site Infections: Review and Relevant Recommendations.

The associated patient morbidity and resource-intensive nature of managing surgical site infections (SSI) has focused attention toward not only improving treatment protocols but also enhancing preventative measures. The purpose of this review was to summarize the relevant updated CDC guidelines for the prevention of SSI that were released in 2017. The CDC recommends the integration of the guidelines for improvement in quality metrics, reportable outcomes, and patient safety.

Ascertaining infectious disease burden through primary care clinic attendance among young Aboriginal children living in four remote communities in Western Australia.

Infectious diseases contribute a substantial burden of ill-health in Australia's Aboriginal children. Skin infections have been shown to be common in remote Aboriginal communities, particularly in the Northern Territory, Australia. However, primary care data on skin and other infectious diseases among Aboriginal children living in remote areas of Western Australia are limited. We conducted a retrospective review of clinic presentations of all children aged 0 to 5 years presenting to four clinics located in ...

NMDA-receptor inhibition and oxidative stress during hippocampal maturation differentially alter parvalbumin expression and gamma-band activity.

Dysfunction of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons is thought to underlie the alterations of gamma-band oscillations observed in schizophrenia. Although the pathomechanisms of this disease remain unclear, oxidative stress induced by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction and decreased glutathione (GSH) synthesizing capacity have been shown to lead to PV-loss and aberrant oscillatory activity. However, the individual contributions of NMDAR-inhibition and GSH-depletion to the developmental alterations observ...

HLA-DR Class II expression on myeloid and lymphoid cells in relation to HLA-DRB1 as a genetic risk factor for visceral leishmaniasis.

Genetic variation at HLA-DRB1 is a risk factor for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs9271252 upstream of the DRB1 gene provides a perfect tag for protective versus risk HLA-DRB1 4-digit alleles. In addition to the traditional role of the membrane-distal region of HLA class II molecules in antigen presentation and CD4 T cell activation, the membrane-proximal region mediates "non-traditional" multi-functional activation, differentiation, or death s...

Tinnitus and neuropathic pain share a common neural substrate in the form of specific brain connectivity and microstate profiles.

Tinnitus and neuropathic pain share similar pathophysiological, clinical, and treatment characteristics. In this EEG study, a group of tinnitus (n = 100) and neuropathic pain (n = 100) patients are compared to each other and to a healthy control group (n = 100). Spectral analysis demonstrates gamma band activity within the primary auditory and somatosensory cortices in patients with tinnitus and neuropathic pain, respectively. A conjunction analysis further demonstrates an overlap of tinnitus an...

Building a network for multicenter, prospective research of central nervous system infections in South America: Process and lessons learned.

Multicenter collaborative networks are essential for advancing research and improving clinical care for a variety of conditions. Research networks are particularly important for central nervous system infections, which remain difficult to study due to their sporadic occurrence and requirement for collection and testing of cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of long-term research networks in resource-limited areas also facilitates diagnostic capacity building, surveillance for emerging pathogens, and provisio...

IFIT1 Exerts Opposing Regulatory Effects on the Inflammatory and Interferon Gene Programs in LPS-Activated Human Macrophages.

Activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to induction of both inflammatory and interferon-stimulated genes, but the mechanisms through which these coordinately activated transcriptional programs are balanced to promote an optimal innate immune response remain poorly understood. In a genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) response in macrophages, we identify the interferon-stimulated protein IFIT1 as a negative r...

Sexually Acquired Hepatitis C Infection in HIV-uninfected Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Against HIV.

Sexually-acquired HCV infections among HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) have been rare. With the introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, we hypothesized that these infections would increase. Between 2013 and 2018 we diagnosed 15 likely sexually-acquired HCV infections among 14 MSM using PrEP. Most (87%) were asymptomatic, detected by routine ALT or HCV monitoring. Half reported increasing sex partners and drug use after starting PrEP; 5 reported injection of methamphetamin...

Influence of the inflammatory response on treatment of hepatitis C with triple therapy.

Chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver disease. Infection triggers an immediate immune response in the host that is mediated by humoral/cellular mechanisms. T cells respond to infection via secretion of cytokines, which inhibit or stimulate one another, leading to cytokine imbalance and ultimately affecting treatment. Studies using interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) showed that TCD8+ cells and cytokine levels are associated with sustainable virological response (SVR). However, studies that invest...

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