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Trends in mortality following Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Scotland, and excess mortality and length of stay in the hospital population, 2010 to 2016: a retrospective cohort and case-control study using linked national datasets.

National surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Scotland enables the monitoring of trends in incidence rates but not mortality.

Single-cell RNA-seq Interpretations using Evolutionary Multiobjective Ensemble Pruning.

In recent years, single-cell RNA sequencing enables us to discover cell types or even subtypes. Its increasing availability provides opportunities to identify cell populations from single-cell RNA-seq data. Computational methods have been employed to reveal the gene expression variations among multiple cell populations. Unfortunately, the existing ones can suffer from realistic restrictions such as experimental noises, numerical instability, high dimensionality, and computational scalability.

Organized Community Activity Participation and the Dynamic Roles of Neighborhood Violence and Gender among Latino Adolescents.

Relative to their peers, Latino youth are underinvolved in organized community activities (e.g., Boys and Girls Club), and their experiences lack examination. This study employed a neighborhood case-study approach to examine the experiences of Latino youth in a neighborhood with high levels of violence and their participation in organized community activities. Employing a cluster sampling design (Lohr, Sampling: Design and analysis. Pacific Grove, CA: Nelson Education, 2009), we used quantitative, spatial, ...

Liponeurocytoma: Systematic review of a rare entity.

Liponeurocytoma is a rare benign tumor of the central nervous system, which develops mainly in adult patients within the posterior fossa. The WHO has categorized this entity in their last classification of 2016 as a benign grade II tumor. Histopathological characteristics contain neuronal and variable astrocytic differentiation with foci of lipomatous distinction. Up to now only a few case reports and case series are published and the knowledge of this tumor is still very limited. General treatment guidelin...

Patient capacity for self-care in the medical record of patients with chronic conditions: a mixed-methods retrospective study.

Patients with chronic conditions must mobilize capacity to access and use healthcare and enact self-care. In order for clinicians to create feasible treatment plans with patients, they must appreciate the limits and possibilities of patient capacity. This study seeks to characterize the amount, nature, and comprehensiveness of the information about patient capacity documented in the medical record.

Bimodal antibacterial system based on quaternary ammonium silane-coupled core-shell hollow mesoporous silica.

Hollow mesoporous silica (HMS) have been extensively investigated as a biomaterial for drug delivery. The present study developed quaternary ammonium silane-grafted hollow mesoporous silica (QHMS) to create a metronidazole (MDZ) sustained delivery system, MDZ@QHMS, with bimodal, contact-kill and release-kill capability. The QHMS was assembled through a self-templating method. Metronidazole was incorporated within the QHMS core using solvent evaporation. Antibacterial activities of the MDZ@QHMS were investig...

The effect of modified locking methods and suture materials on Zone II flexor tendon repair-An ex vivo study.

The failure rate of intrasynovial tendon repair is high due to substantial elongation at the repair site and to the development of adhesions between the tendon's surface and the surrounding digital sheath. To minimize these complications, we sought to reduce the incidence of gapping and to facilitate the initiation of early motion by improving the time zero structural properties of repair. The Winters-Gelberman 8-strand repair technique was modified by adding surface lock loops and by using Fiberwire suture...

Financial risk protection at the bedside: How Ethiopian physicians try to minimize out-of-pocket health expenditures.

Out-of-pocket health expenditures can pose major financial risks, create access-barriers and drive patients and families into poverty. Little is known about physicians' role in financial protection of patients and families at the bedside in low-income settings and how they perceive their roles and duties when treating patients in a health care system requiring high out-of-pocket costs.

Reducing effects of dispersal on the bias of 2-sample mark-recapture estimators of stream fish abundance.

The 2-sample mark-recapture method with Chapman's estimator is often used by inland fishery managers to estimate the reach-scale abundance of stream fish. An important assumption of this method is that no dispersal into or out of the study reach occurs between the two samples. Violations of this assumption are probably common in practice, but their effect on bias (systematic error) of abundance estimates is poorly understood, especially in small populations. Estimation methods permitting dispersal exist but...

Additive Manufacturing of Functionally Graded Ceramic Materials by Stereolithography.

An additive manufacturing technology is applied to obtain functionally graded ceramic parts. This technology, based on digital light processing/stereolithography, is developed within the scope of the CerAMfacturing European research project. A three-dimensional (3-D) hemi-maxillary bone-like structure is 3-D printed using custom aluminum oxide polymeric mixtures. The powders and mixtures are fully analyzed in terms of rheological behavior in order to ensure proper material handling during the printing proce...

Opportunities and challenges for Chinese thoracic surgery in the golden age.

With the emergence of new concepts and new technologies, the mode of diagnosis and treatment of thoracic surgery in China has changed greatly. Under this background, Chinese thoracic surgery ushered in its "golden age" . This paper expounds the new challenges of thoracic surgery in China from many aspects, and points out that with the advent of precision medicine and modern science and technology, thoracic surgery will continue to develop rapidly. We should seize the opportunity, further expand our advantag...

In-Vivo Ratiometric Optical Mapping Enables High-Resolution Cardiac Electrophysiology in Pig Models.

Cardiac optical mapping is the gold standard for measuring complex electrophysiology in ex-vivo heart preparations. However, new methods for optical mapping in-vivo have been elusive. We aimed at developing and validating an experimental method for performing in-vivo cardiac optical mapping in pig models.

A Point-and-Shoot Strategy for Rapid Identification of Alcoholic Beverages.

The lack of point-and-shoot detection methods of alcoholic beverages (ABs) available for every ordinary people is a common cause of the overflow of various counterfeit ABs. Here, we, for the first time, provide a point-and-shoot identification for ABs via a smartphone. Using density functional theory, we find the binding ability of an ethylenediamine-functionalized polydiacetylenes (P4) can reach a desirable trade-off among organic molecules in ABs. We therefore construct a versatile array consisting of P4 ...

Stakeholders' perceptions regarding a salt reduction strategy for India: Findings from qualitative research.

Scientific evidence indicates that high dietary salt intake has detrimental effects on blood pressure and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, limited information is available on how to implement salt reduction in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as India, where the burden of hypertension and CVD is increasing rapidly. As part of a large study to create the evidence base required to develop a salt reduction strategy for India, we assessed the perspectives of various stakeholders reg...

Romantic Surfaces: A Systematic Overview of Stable, Biospecific, and Antifouling Zwitterionic Surfaces.

This Feature Article focuses on recent advances in the bioconjugation of surface-bound zwitterionic polymers for biospecific antifouling surfaces. Various approaches for the functionalization of antifouling zwitterionic polymers are systematically investigated, such as chain-end and side-chain functionalization. Side-chain functionalization methods can be further classified as those that are achieved through homopolymerization of custom-synthesized zwitterionic monomers equipped with reactive groups, or tho...

Surgical correction of retroaortic position of the left renal vein.

Described herein is a variant of surgical reconstruction performed in a male patient with a retroaortic position of the left renal vein by means of creating a vein-allograft-vein configuration. Unfortunately, to date, there are no generally accepted recommendations on proper treatment of patients presenting with similar pathology. A situation wherein it is impossible to create an intervenous anastomosis (because of a significantly altered portion of the vein and prestenotic dilataion) dictates the necessity...

CBE-Life Sciences Education: the story of a "great journal scientists might be caught reading".

How did a moderately sized scientific society create what many consider to be the leading journal in biology education? As Editor-in-Chief of the education journal of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB), CBE-Life Sciences Education ( LSE) and recipient of the 2018 Bruce Alberts Award for Excellence in Science Education, I tell the story of the establishment, growth, and impact of ASCB's "other journal."

Single-site labeling of histidine in proteins, on-demand reversibility, and traceless metal-free protein purification.

A precision methodology distinguishes one His from all the nucleophilic residues and its multiple copies. An easy-to-operate C-N bond formation labels diverse proteins without adversely affecting their structure and function. The late-stage transformation allows installation of distinct probes. The chemically triggered reversibility enables traceless metal-free purification of proteins with a His-tag.

An Engineered DC-Targeting Lentivector Induces Robust T Cell Responses and Inhibits HBV Replication in HBV Transgenic Mice via Upregulating T Cell Autophagy.

Developing engineered dendritic cell (DC)-targeting lentivectors (LVs) have been the target of intense research for their potential to create antigen-directed immunotherapeutics which can be safely administered to patients. In this study, we constructed a DC-directed LV (LVDC-UbHBcAg-LIGHT) as a potential vaccine to induce anti-HBV immune responses.

High-Throughput Analysis of Behavior Under the Control of Optogenetics in Caenorhabditis elegans.

In this unit, we describe an inexpensive and versatile method for optogenetic stimulation of a large population of genetically engineered Caenorhabditis elegans worms while quantitatively analyzing behavior. A custom light-emitting diode light source is used to deliver blue-light stimuli, causing direct depolarization of neurons expressing the light-gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2, which in turn evokes behavioral responses. The behavioral responses are recorded by a high-throughput machine vision-ba...

Illustrating natural history: images, periodicals, and the making of nineteenth-century scientific communities.

This paper examines how communities of naturalists in mid-nineteenth-century Britain were formed and solidified around the shared practices of public meetings, the publication and reading of periodicals, and the making and printing of images. By focusing on communities of naturalists and the sites of their communication, this article undermines the distinction between amateur and professional scientific practice. Building on the notion of imagined communities, this paper also shows that in some cases the ed...

Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars Using Laser-Assisted Corticosteroid Versus Laser-Assisted 5-Fluorouracil Delivery.

As the mortality of individuals suffering severe cutaneous injuries decreases, there is an increased need to improve the methods by which physicians treat the resultant scars. Fractional lasers, which create zones of ablation at variable depths, provide a powerful tool in the management of scar complications and deformities. After disruption of the normal skin barrier, these zones may be used to deliver drugs that may enhance scar resolution.

Implementation of a Stirling number estimator enables direct calculation of population genetics tests for large sequence data sets.

Stirling numbers enter into the calculation of several population genetics statistics, including Fu's Fs. However, as alignments become large (>∼50 sequences), the Stirling numbers required rapidly exceed the standard floating point range. Another recursive method for calculating Fu's Fs suffers from floating point underflow issues.

TfO-Promoted Activating Strategy of Phosphate Analogues: Synthesis of Mixed Phosphates and Phosphinate.

A metal-, toxic chloride reagent-free activating strategy of various phosphates has been developed. This method enables the facile synthesis of functional phosphates such as alkyl phosphates, aza phosphates, thiophosphate, and mixed diaryl phosphates. A transient phosphorylpyridin-1-ium species in situ generated from phosphates with TfO/pyridine readily undergoes a substitution reaction with diverse nucleophiles to form versatile phosphate compounds.

Benign tumors that cause fractures in children.

A pathological fracture is defined as that which occurs through an abnormal bone. Approximately 20,000 benign neoplasms of the musculoskeletal system are diagnosed each year. Often the pain of the fracture is the first symptom of a pathological process in the bone. The site, age and radiographic appearance create a differential diagnosis for pathological fractures that remains broad. The clinical examination evaluates the condition of the skin, palpating any tissue mass and determining if there are local in...

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