PubMed Journals Articles About "Craving Manipulation Cocaine Placebo Cocaine Unspecified" - Page: 20 RSS

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Showing "Craving Manipulation Cocaine Placebo Cocaine Unspecified" PubMed Articles 476–500 of 1,800+

Perkins's patent metallic "Tractors": Development, adoption, and early dissemination of an eighteenth-century therapeutic fad.

The metallick Tractors were patented by Elisha Perkins, a Connecticut physician, in 1796, for the treatment of various ailments, particularly those associated with pain. They were subsequently rapidly and widely disseminated on the basis of testimonials and aggressive marketing tactics. Dissemination was facilitated by endorsements from prominent physicians, politicians, and clergy, by quasi-theoretical explanations of efficacy based on then-current experiments of Galvani and others, and by the apparent sim...

The role of sham continuous positive airway pressure as a placebo in controlled trials: Best Apnea Interventions for Research Trial.

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of sham continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared to conservative medical therapy (CMT) as a control arm in the Best Apnea Interventions for Research (BestAIR) study by assessing differences in subjectively and objectively measured outcomes, adverse events, adherence, and retention rates.

The effects of adrenaline in out of hospital cardiac arrest with shockable and non-shockable rhythms: Findings from the PACA and PARAMEDIC-2 randomised controlled trials.

Previous research suggests there may be differences in the effects of adrenaline related to the initial cardiac arrest rhythm. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adrenaline compared with placebo according to whether the initial cardiac arrest rhythm was shockable or non-shockable.

Oligodendrocytes Support Neuronal Glutamatergic Transmission via Expression of Glutamine Synthetase.

Glutamate has been implicated in a wide range of brain pathologies and is thought to be metabolized via the astrocyte-specific enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). We show here that oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glia of the central nervous system, also express high levels of GS in caudal regions like the midbrain and the spinal cord. Selective removal of oligodendrocyte GS in mice led to reduced brain glutamate and glutamine levels and impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission without disrupting myelina...

Alcohol Withdrawal and Proopiomelanocortin Neuropeptides in an Animal Model of Alcohol Dependence.

Alcohol is one of the leading threats to health worldwide. Craving for alcohol makes abstinence a difficult challenge by maintaining alcohol dependence. Many studies suppose the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived neuropeptides, to mediate craving during withdrawal in alcohol dependence. Evidence is available that the two POMC proteins, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and β-endorphin (β-END) are altered by alcohol consumption and influence alco...

Enarodustat, Conversion and Maintenance Therapy for Anemia in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2b Trial Followed by Long-Term Trial.

Enarodustat (JTZ-951) is an orally available hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that increases endogenous erythropoietin levels in the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

A Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy of a Combination of Propolis and Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) (DUAB®) in Preventing Low Urinary Tract Infection Recurrence in Women Complaining of Recurrent Cystitis.

The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of a product containing cranberry and propolis (DUAB) to placebo for reducing frequency of cystitis in women with recurrent acute cystitis.

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Assessing the Oral Administration of a Heat-Treated Lactobacillus paracasei  Supplement in Infants with Atopic Dermatitis Receiving Topical Corticosteroid Therapy.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease in infancy, for which topical steroids are the first-line therapy but have side effects. Innovative approaches are needed to reduce the burden of AD and corticosteroid usage in infants.

The effect of rebranding generic medicines on drug efficacy and side effects.

Branded medicines have a greater placebo effect, resulting in a heightened therapeutic response, whereas generics are associated with greater side effect reporting. These two studies investigated whether enhancing the appearance of a generic medicine could increase placebo and decrease nocebo responding.

Vaginal misoprostol before copper IUD insertion after previous insertion failure: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, randomised clinical trial.

The aim of the study was to assess whether vaginal administration of misoprostol before copper intrauterine device (IUD) insertion increased the success of the procedure among parous women with previous insertion failure.

SystemDementia Mortality in the United States, 2000-2017.

Objectives-This report presents data on mortality attributable to dementia. Data for dementia as an underlying cause of death from 2000 through 2017 are shown by selected characteristics such as age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and state of residence. Trends in dementia deaths overall and by specific cause are presented. The reporting of dementia as a contributing cause of death is also described. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and ...

Nanoscale Integration of Single Cell Biologics Discovery Processes Using Optofluidic Manipulation and Monitoring.

The new and rapid advancement in the complexity of biologics drug discovery has been driven by a deeper understanding of biological systems combined with innovative new therapeutic modalities, paving the way to breakthrough therapies for previously intractable diseases. These exciting times in biomedical innovation require the development of novel technologies to facilitate the sophisticated, multi-faceted, high-paced workflows necessary to support modern large molecule drug discovery. A high-level aspirati...

Interventions for the prevention of pain associated with the placement of intrauterine contraceptives: An updated review.

A 2013 review found no evidence to support the routine use of pain relief for intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) placement, however, fear of pain with placement continues to be a barrier to use for some women. This narrative review set out to identify (1) new evidence that may support routine use of pain management strategies for IUC placement; (2) procedure-related approaches that may have a positive impact on the pain experience; and (3) factors that may help healthcare professionals identify women at incre...

Controlled Trial of Budesonide-Formoterol as Needed for Mild Asthma.

In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, budesonide-formoterol used on an as-needed basis resulted in a lower risk of severe exacerbation of asthma than as-needed use of a short-acting β-agonist (SABA); the risk was similar to that of budesonide maintenance therapy plus as-needed SABA. The availability of data from clinical trials designed to better reflect clinical practice would be beneficial.

Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

ADHD is characterized by a developmentally inappropriate level of inattentiveness, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity. In adults, the disorder is frequently accompanied by Emotional Dysregulation (ED), associated to a variety of related psychiatric comorbidities, complicating its recognition and treatment management. Areas covered: This paper reviews randomized active comparator-controlled or placebo-controlled trials evaluating the use of pharmacotherapy in adults with ADHD and ED, other neurodevelopmental d...

Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures Enabled by Bottom-Up Approaches.

We present a comprehensive review of recent developments in the field of chiral plasmonics. Significant advances have been made recently in understanding the working principles of chiral plasmonic structures. With advances in micro- and nanofabrication techniques, a variety of chiral plasmonic nanostructures have been experimentally realized; these tailored chiroptical properties vastly outperform those of their molecular counterparts. We focus on chiral plasmonic nanostructures created using bottom-up appr...

Quadratus lumborum block for postoperative analgesia after full abdominoplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

Background and aims The quadratus lumborum block (QLB) provides regional analgesia of the anterior abdominal wall, theoretically matching the postoperative pain after postbariatric standard full abdominoplasty. We investigated the effectiveness of a QLB as an addition to the current multimodal analgesia regimen in postbariatric patients treated with standard full abdominoplasty. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, triple blinded study (n = 50). All patients received perioperative paracetamol and int...

Social Behaviour: Males Help When Mates Are Rare.

In cooperatively-breeding animals, some individuals may postpone or completely forego independent reproduction to help others reproduce. A recent large-scale manipulation of adult sex ratio in wild nuthatches suggests that male birds postpone breeding because of a shortage of potential mates.

Cholinergic and serotonergic modulation of resting state functional brain connectivity in Alzheimer's disease.

Disruption of cholinergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems is associated with cognitive, emotional and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the responsiveness of these systems in AD we measured the effects of a single-dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine in 12 patients with AD and 12 age-matched controls on functional brain connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. In thi...

Comparison of Subconjunctival Aflibercept and Betamethasone for the Treatment of Formed Corneal Neovascularization in a Rabbit Model.

To compare the efficacy of aflibercept (Eylea®), a potent antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, with betamethasone (Celestone®) and placebo for the treatment of formed corneal neovascularization in a rabbit model.

Fluoride Dentifrice Overcomes the Lower Resistance of Fluorotic Enamel to Demineralization.

We evaluated if the low resistance of fluorotic enamel to demineralization could be overcome by fluoride dentifrice (FD) treatment. Paired enamel slabs of sound and fluorotic enamel (n = 20/group) from human teeth presenting Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TF) scores from 0 to 4 were obtained. Half of the anatomic surface of the enamel slabs was isolated and used as a control (baseline) regarding enamel mineralization and fluoride concentration. The slabs were submitted to a pH-cycling model simulating a hig...

The role of orexin-1 receptor signaling in demand for the opioid fentanyl.

The orexin system is a potential treatment target for drug addiction. Orexin-1 receptor (OxR1) antagonism reduces demand for cocaine and remifentanil, indicating that orexin-based therapies may reduce demand for many classes of abused drugs. However, pharmacokinetics vary greatly among opioids and it is unclear if OxR1 antagonism would reduce demand for all opioids, particularly ones with high abuse liability. Here, we established a behavioral economics (BE) procedure to assess the effects of OxR1 antagonis...

AttGAN: Facial Attribute Editing by Only Changing What You Want.

Facial attribute editing aims to manipulate single or multiple attributes on a given face image, i.e., to generate a new face image with desired attributes while preserving other details. Recently, generative adversarial net (GAN) and encoder-decoder architecture are usually incorporated to handle this task with promising results. Based on the encoder-decoder architecture, facial attribute editing is achieved by decoding the latent representation of a given face conditioned on the desired attributes. Some e...

Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and rifaximin for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a network meta-analysis.

For the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients with ascites, prophylactic antibiotics are recommended as a standard regimen. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of norfloxacin (N), ciprofloxacin (C), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T-S), and rifaximin (R) in the prevention of SBP. We searched the electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science from inception till 1 August 2018. The randomized-controlled trials that compared N, C, T-...

Genetics of cocaine and methamphetamine consumption and preference in Drosophila melanogaster.

Illicit use of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine, constitutes a significant public health problem. Whereas neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of these drugs are well-characterized, genetic factors that account for individual variation in susceptibility to substance abuse and addiction remain largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster can serve as a translational model for studies on substance abuse, since flies have a dopamine transporter that can bind cocaine and methamphetamine, ...

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