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Showing "1121B Advanced Solid Tumors" PubMed Articles 476–500 of 9,500+

Radiation Induced Cerebral Microbleeds in Pediatric Patients with Brain Tumors Treated with Proton Radiotherapy.

Proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) has been increasingly utilized to treat pediatric brain tumors, however, limited information exists regarding radiation induced cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) among these patients. The purpose was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and imaging appearance of CMBs in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with PBT.

Thoracoabdominal gastrectomy and distal 2/3 esophageal resection with wide lymph node dissection for type II and III adenocarcinoma at the gastro-esophageal junction.

For locally advanced Siewert type II and III tumors we have performed total gastrectomy including resection of the distal 2/3 of the esophagus, through separate abdominal and right chest incisions (THX-ABD). The procedure involves wide lymphadenectomy in the abdomen/chest and a Roux-en-Y jejunostomy to the level of the azygos vein or above. The aim of the study was to investigate short- and long-term results for this rarely used procedure.

Glutathione S-Transferases and Cytochrome P450 enzyme expression in patients with Intracranial Tumors: Preliminary Report of 55 Patients.

Intracranial tumors are one of the most frightening and difficult to treat tumor types. In addition to surgery, additional protocols such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy also take place in the treatment. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are prominent drug metabolizing enzymes in human body. The aim of the present study is to show the expression of GSTP1, GSTM1, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different types of brain tumors and to compare the results with current literature.

Characteristics, properties, and potential applications of circulating cell-free dna in clinical diagnostics: a focus on transplantation.

The initial discovery of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in 1948 by Mandel and Metais has led to numerous investigations evaluating the role of cfDNA in various disease states. cfDNA has been characterized in various patient populations with similar results. cfDNA are typically 150 bp of double-stranded DNA that are thought to be released from nucleosomes during apoptosis and necrosis. They are found in circulation as monomers, dimers, and trimers. Different specimen types yield significantly different amounts cfDNA....

Patient-reported treatment-related symptom burden for patients with advanced melanoma in Canada.

Little is known on the impact of emerging treatments for advanced melanoma (stages III and IV) on patients' functioning and well-being. The objective of this study was to describe the patient-reported treatment-related symptom (TRS) burden in advanced melanoma.

Predictive factors for response and survival in a cohort of oligometastatic patients treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

To evaluate patients, treatment or disease characteristics that could predict response to SBRT and survival in a database of oligometastatic patients from different solid tumors. Matherial and Methods Patients treated with SBRT for oligometastatic disease between 2014 and 2015 were included. Patients were defined as oligometastatic if they were affected by maximum 5 active lesions in 3 different sites. They had to be treated with SBRT with radical intent.

PET in the Diagnostic Management of Soft Tissue Sarcomas of Musculoskeletal Origin.

Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) account for less than 1% of adult solid tumors and about 7% of pediatric malignancies, causing 2% of cancer-related deaths. With the advent of PET-computed tomography (CT), the value of (18) fluorine-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET imaging to improve the management of STSs has been explored. FDG PET imaging has been found useful in restaging and treatment response assessment. This article reviews current knowledge and application of FDG PET-CT in initial diagnosis, staging, ...

Perceptions of Reducing Tube Feeding for Persons with Advanced Dementia among Various Professions in a Teaching Hospital.

Even though no evidence suggests tube feeding is beneficial for individuals with advanced dementia, many are still tube fed.

A Case Report of Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma: A nine-year journey from the brain to the spine.

Hemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare and aggressive vascular mesenchymal tumors. Unlike meningiomas which have a similar radiological appearance, these tumors have a higher risk of local recurrence after resection, and distant metastasis can reach up to 23%. Metastases to the vertebral bones from an intracranial HPC are very rare, with so far only 9 cases reported in the literature.

Possible hints and pitfalls in diagnosing Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

Background Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmentation and cancer predisposition. Patients with PJS can develop large calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (LCSTs). Case presentation A patient presented at 3 years of age with delayed development, hypermobility and later also with tall stature and advanced bone age. Extensive endocrine evaluation, mutation analysis of genes associated with connective tissue disorders and a single nucleotide polymorphism (S...

Low dosage of apatinib monotherapy as rescue treatment in advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the standard treatment option in advanced squamous cell carcinoma patients. However, few agents could be selected for subsequent post-second-line treatment. As a small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase, apatinib had been proved in advanced gastric cancer. Here, we showed its efficacy and safety in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry for Soft Tissue and Bone Tumors: An Update.

Although some soft tissue and bone tumors can be identified based on histologic features alone, immunohistochemistry plays a critical diagnostic role for most mesenchymal tumor types. The discovery of recurrent genomic alterations in many benign and malignant mesenchymal neoplasms has added important biologic insights and expanded the spectrum of some diagnostic subgroups. Some tumors are defined by unique genomic alterations, whereas others share abnormalities that are not tumor-specific and can be observe...

Reconstruction giant cell tumor of the right proximal humerus Campanacci 3 with pedicle and rod system: A case report.

Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. Although considered to be benign tumors of bone, GCT has a relatively high recurrence rate. Tumor often extends to the articular subchondral bone or even abuts the cartilage. The joint and/or its capsule are rarely invaded. Surgical resection is the universal standard of care for the treatment of bone GCT. The key ensuring an adequate surgical treatment with complete removal of tumor is by obtaining...

PDGFRα expression as a novel therapeutic marker in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors.

To evaluate the biological significance of dense vascular networks associated with low-grade NENs, we assessed the impact of PDGFRα tissue expression in 77 GEP/NEN patients, associating PDGFRα expression with the morphological characterization in low-grade tumors.

Delays in diagnosis of pediatric histologically confirmed sellar germ cell tumors in China: a retrospective risk factor analysis.

Sellar germ cell tumors occur more frequently in childhood. Some are malignancy with infiltration and metastasis. However, the association between timeliness of diagnosis and outcome is controversial.

Specific computed tomography imaging characteristics of congenital mesoblastic nephroma and correlation with ultrasound and pathology.

Congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) is a common solid renal tumor in the neonate. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma can be divided into classic, cellular, and mixed types. The prognosis of CMN is very optimistic. But CMN can easily be misdiagnosed as the other malignant renal tumors by radiology. However, no studies have described the computed tomography (CT) imaging appearance of CNM in detail. The objective of this study is retrospective analyses of the multislice CT characteristics of CMN and their corre...

In-hospital outcomes for solid organ transplants according to type 2 diabetes status: an observational, 15-year study in Spain.

To describe trends and outcomes during admission for solid organ transplant in people with or without type 2 diabetes in Spain, 2001-2015.

CK7, inhibin, and p63 in testicular germ cell tumor: superior markers of Choriocarcinoma compared to β-hCG.

Choriocarcinoma can be difficult to differentiate from other subtypes of testicular germ cell tumor and can occur unexpectedly in a distant, late metastasis. The aim of this investigation was to identify a marker superior to β-hCG for choriocarcinoma. 62 primary and metastatic testicular germ cell tumors (27 choriocarcinomas, 19 yolk sac tumors, 29 embryonal carcinomas, 28 seminomas, 22 teratomas, 3 epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETT)), were analyzed for immunohistochemical expression of CK7, inhibin, p...

Clinical Comparison of Spleen-Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy With or Without Splenic Vessel Preservation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with splenic vessel preservation (SVP) and only the save of short gastric and left gastroepiploic vessels called the Warshaw technique (WT) are the optimal procedures to resect benign or borderline malignant tumors of the left pancreas. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the intra- and postoperative outcomes between SVP and the WT.

Association of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies with the development of thyroid dysfunction induced by nivolumab.

Thyroid dysfunction (TD) induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors is not sufficiently understood. The purpose of this retrospective observational study was to identify risk factors and the clinical course of TD induced by nivolumab. Patients with advanced solid tumors who were treated with nivolumab from March 2009 through March 2016 at the National Cancer Center Hospital were included. Thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies from serum samples among all patients were evaluated at baseline and during ni...

TGF-β enhances the cytotoxic activity of Vδ2 T cells.

TGF-β is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple roles in immunity. Apart from its suppressive activity, TGF-β is a driving cytokine in the differentiation of induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) but also in the polarization of interleukin-9 (IL-9) producing T helper 9 (Th9) T cells. Human Vδ2 expressing γδ T cells exert potent cytotoxicity towards a variety of solid tumor and leukemia/lymphoma target cells and thus are in the focus of current strategies to develop cell-based immunotherapies. Here we report...

Molecular Diagnostics in Pediatric Brain Tumors: Impact on Diagnosis and Clinical Decision-Making - A Selected Case Series.

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors account for the highest mortality among pediatric malignancies. Accurate diagnosis is essential for optimal clinical management. The increasing use of molecular diagnostics has opened up novel possibilities for more precise classification of CNS tumors. We here report a single-institutional collection of pediatric CNS tumor cases that underwent a refinement or a change of diagnosis after completion of molecular analysis that affected clinical decision-making including the...

PD-L1 Expression, Tumor Mutational Burden, and Response to Immunotherapy in Patients with MET exon 14 Altered Lung Cancers.

MET exon 14 alterations are actionable oncogenic drivers. Durable responses to MET inhibitors are observed in patients with advanced MET exon 14-altered lung cancers in prospective trials. In contrast, the activity of immunotherapy, PD-L1 expression and tumor mutational burden (TMB) of these tumors and are not well characterized.

Role of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene mutations in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer; current status and perspectives.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of solid tumors in the world with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Most cases of CRCs are initiated by inactivating mutations in a tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), leading to constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. This review summarizes the roles of somatic and germline mutations of the APC gene in hereditary as well as sporadic forms of CRC. We also discuss the diagnostic and prognostic value of the APC gen...

Different Chemotherapy Regimens in the Management of Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Cancer: a Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Urothelial cancer (UC) as a chemotherapy-sensitive tumor, has achieved remarkable progresses in therapeutic paradigm, particularly in the advanced/metastatic stages. However, both clinicians and patients are confused when it comes to choosing the optimal chemotherapy. Hence, this article was aimed to conduct a comprehensive comparison of different chemotherapy regimens for advanced or metastatic UC in terms of survival benefits or adverse events.

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