PubMed Journals Articles About "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults With" - Page: 3 RSS

01:48 EST 14th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults with" PubMed Articles 51–75 of 44,000+

Self-reported empathy in adults with autism, early psychosis, and social anxiety disorder.

The Empathy Quotient (EQ) self-report questionnaire is used to measure empathy in individuals with clinical conditions that have been associated with social impairments. In this study, older teens and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 60), early psychosis (EP; N = 51) and social anxiety disorder (SAD; N = 71) and neurotypical controls (NT; N = 26) were compared on the cognitive empathy, emotional reactivity and social skills sub-scales of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) measure. All t...

Vestibular rehabilitation in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment: Effects of virtual reality using a head-mounted display.

Due to the gap in the knowledge in the field of vestibular rehabilitation the purpose of this randomized study is to highlight the outcomes of head-mounted display (HMD) implementation in older adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suffering from unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH).

Cognitive fatigue and cortical-striatal network in old age.

Cognitive fatigue (CF) is among the most common and disturbing aging symptoms, and substantially interferes with activities demanding sustained mental effort. Here we examined the relationship between the cortical-striatal network and CF (assessed by the 18-item visual analogue scale) when a group of cognitively and physically healthy older adults participated in a 30-minute cognitively fatiguing task-related fMRI experiment. We also explored whether CF would interfere with the "Posterior-Anterior Shifting ...

Cognitive, neural and endocrine functioning during late pregnancy: An Event-Related Potentials study.

This study investigated cognitive, neural and endocrine function during late pregnancy. One of the first to examine brain ERPs in pregnant women, the study is unique in its focus on response inhibition function. In the study, cognitive function was evaluated by a digit-symbol coding test, an arithmetic ability test, and a visual stop-signal task which places enhanced demands on impulse control and response inhibition, considered a hallmark of executive function. Brain activity was measured by scalp-recorded...

Poor working memory performance in healthy elderly adults with electroencephalographic risk of cognitive decline affects syntactic processing.

To examine the effects of working memory (WM) load and gender agreement on sentence processing as a function of the electroencephalographic risk (i.e., abnormally high values of theta absolute power) of cognitive decline in older adults.

Longitudinal Association of Depression Symptoms With Cognition and Cortical Amyloid Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Depressive symptoms are prevalent among older adults and may be early manifestations of Alzheimer disease (AD) before onset of mild cognitive impairment. However, it remains unclear whether worsening depressive symptoms in the presence of AD pathology are associated with cognitive decline in older adults.

Cytokines are Associated with Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive Performance Among Urban Adults.

Chronic systemic inflammation has been positively associated with structural and functional brain changes representing early markers of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and cognitive decline. The current study examined associations between systemic inflammation and cognitive performance among African Americans and Whites urban adults.

Food insecurity transitions and smoking behavior among older adults who smoke.

Cross-sectional data reveal that smoking cigarettes is highly prevalent among those who are food insecure. However, there is limited and conflicting evidence concerning whether causal factors may influence associations of food insecurity with smoking behavior. Additionally, temporality is a core feature of food insecurity that should be considered when examining linkages between food insecurity and health behaviors like smoking cessation. In 2019, data were extracted from waves 2012 and 2014 of the Health a...

Trajectories of Cognitive Decline by Widowhood Status among Korean Older Adults.

Given the limited evidence regarding the longitudinal impact of widowhood on cognitive function in later life, the present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal effect of widowhood status on cognitive change among Korean older adults.

Multisensory, Multi-Tasking Performance of Older Adults With and Without Subjective Cognitive Decline.

As the population ages, it is increasingly important to detect non-normative cognitive declines as early as possible. Measures of combined sensory-motor-cognitive functioning may be early markers for identifying individuals who are at increased risk of developing dementia. Further, older adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may have elevated risk of dementia compared to those without SCD. Tasks involving complex, multisensory interactions reflective of everyday challenges may be particular...

Severe Fear of Falling Is Associated With Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: A 3-Year Prospective Study.

Fear of falling (FOF) is common in older adults. We investigated whether FOF affects development of cognitive decline over a 3-year period in community-dwelling older adults with intact cognition.

Effects of Erythrosine (E127) on Neural Tube Development in Early Chicken Embryos.

Erythrosine (E127), a synthetic food dye containing iodine and sodium, has been commonly used inside the packaged foods and beverages both in Turkey and in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the effects of Erythrosine on neural tube development in the early stage chicken embryos.

Behavioral and neural sensitivity to uncertain threat in individuals with alcohol use disorder: Associations with drinking behaviors and motives.

A developing theory is that individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) display exaggerated reactivity to threats that are uncertain (U-threat), which facilitates excessive drinking as a means of avoidance-based coping. There is a promising initial behavioral evidence supporting this theory; however, the neural bases of reactivity to U-threat in individuals with AUD have not been examined. The extent to which biomarkers of U-threat reactivity map onto drinking behaviors and coping motives for alcohol use is...

The role of education in a vascular pathway to episodic memory: brain maintenance or cognitive reserve?

Educational attainment is associated with cognition among older adults, but this association is complex and not well understood. While associated with better cognition among healthy adults, more education predicts faster decline in older adults with cognitive impairment. Education may influence cognitive functioning through mechanisms involving brain maintenance (BM: reduced age-related pathology) or cognitive reserve (CR: altered pathology-cognition association). We examined evidence for each mechanism by ...

Cultural Differences in Interpersonal Emotion Regulation.

Cultural differences exist in the use of emotion regulation (ER) strategies, but the focus to date has been on intrapersonal ER strategies such as cognitive reappraisal. An emerging literature highlights the importance of interpersonal ER, which utilizes social cues to facilitate the regulation of emotional states. In cultures that place high value on social interconnectedness as integral to their collectivistic self-construal, including East Asian cultures, interpersonal ER strategies may be particularly e...

Investigating the neural basis of cognitive control dysfunction in mood disorders.

Dysfunction of cognitive control is a feature of both bipolar disorder (BP) and major depression (MDD) and persists through to remission. However, it is unknown whether these disorders are characterized by common or distinct disruptions of cognitive control function and its neural basis. We investigated this gap in knowledge in asymptomatic BP and MDD participants, interpreted within a framework of normative function.

Disability trajectories and mortality in older adults with different cognitive and physical profiles.

Cognitive and physical deficits independently raise the risk for negative events in older adults. Less is known about whether their co-occurrence constitutes a distinct risk profile. This study quantifies the association between cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND), slow walking speed (WS) and their combination and disability and mortality.

Speech production and disorganization in schizotypy: Investigating the role of cognitive and affective systems.

Diminished productivity and elevated disorganization have been detected in the speech of individuals with schizotypy. However, the underlying mechanisms for these disruptions are not well understood. Separate lines of research suggest potential contributions from cognitive and affective systems. In this study, disorganized speech and speech production were examined in speech samples generated by schizotypy (n = 47) and non-schizotypy (n = 51) groups by assessing "reactivity" (i.e., a change in exper...

Towards an Explanatory Model of Suicidal Ideation: The Effects of Cognitive Emotional Regulation Strategies, Affectivity and Hopelessness.

Suicide constitutes a public health problem that has a significant economic, social and psychological impact on a global scale. Recently, the American Psychological Association has indicated that suicide prevention should be a public health priority. Suicidal ideation appears as a key variable in suicide prevention. The objective of this research was to verify the adjustment of an explanatory model for suicidal ideation, which considers the effects of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, affectivity and...

Brain structural connectomes indicate shared neural circuitry involved in subjective experience of cognitive and physical fatigue in older adults.

Cumulative evidence suggests the existence of common processes underlying subjective experience of cognitive and physical fatigue. However, mechanistic understanding of the brain structural connections underlying the experience of fatigue in general, without the influence of clinical conditions, is limited. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between structural connectivity and perceived state fatigue in older adults. We enrolled cognitively and physically healthy older individuals (n...

Testing the influence of musical expertise on novel word learning across the lifespan using a cross-sectional approach in children, young adults and older adults.

Word learning is a multifaceted perceptual and cognitive task that is omnipresent in everyday life. Currently, it is unclear whether this ability is influenced by age, musical expertise or both variables. Accordingly, we used EEG and compared behavioral and electrophysiological indices of word learning between older adults with and without musical expertise (older adults' perspective) as well as between musically trained and untrained children, young adults, and older adults (lifespan perspective). Results ...

Nut consumption and cognitive function: a systematic review.

Antioxidant-rich diet patterns could contribute to the prevention and treatment of early stages of dementia. Nuts have an appreciable antioxidant load and there is evidence of their positive effects on several chronic diseases incidence and death rates. Moreover, they are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which might also play a positive role in neurogenesis. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from studies related to the effects of nut consumption on cognitive function among ...

Short-term effects of video gaming on brain response during working memory performance.

Breaks filled with different break activities often interrupt cognitive performance in everyday life. Previous studies have reported that both enhancing and deteriorating effects on challenging ongoing tasks such as working memory updating, depend on the type of break activity. However, neural mechanisms of these break-related alterations in working memory performance have not been studied, to date. Therefore, we conducted a brain imaging study to identify the neurobiological correlates of effects on the n-...

Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: the earlier the better?

Impairments in neuro and social cognition are considered core features of schizophrenia (SCZ) since they affect patients' functioning and contribute to poor socio-occupational outcomes. Therefore, the improvement of cognitive performances has become a primary goal in the care of patients with SCZ, especially in the first phases of the disease, as early interventions may favour better long-term outcomes. Cognitive remediation (CR) is a behavioural training aimed at improving cognitive functions with the goal...

The Efficacy of Modafinil as a Cognitive Enhancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Animal models and human studies have identified the potential of modafinil as a cognitive enhancing agent, independent of its effects on promoting wakefulness in sleep-deprived samples. Given that single-dose applications of other putative memory enhancers (eg, D-cycloserine, yohimbine, and methylene blue) have shown success in enhancing clinical outcomes for anxiety-related disorders, we conducted a meta-analytic review examining the potential for single-dose effects for modafinil on cognitive functioning ...

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