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PubMed Journals Articles About "Twin Study Finds Genetics Affects Where Children Look" - Page: 3 RSS

16:37 EDT 16th July 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Twin study finds genetics affects where children look" PubMed Articles 51–75 of 66,000+

The association between punishment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism.

This study examined judgment about punishment and whether punishment promoted cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) children. In total, 66 6- to 12-year-olds participated in this study. Children were first asked about judgments regarding rewards and punishment in stories, and then they were asked to play the PDG with a partner in conditions with and without punishment. Results showed that children with HFA believed that ...


In utero Partial Exchange Transfusion Combined with in utero Blood Transfusion for Prenatal Management of Twin Anemia-Polycythemia Sequence.

Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at risk of unique complications due to placental sharing and vascular connections between placental territories assigned for each twin. Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is an infrequent but potentially dangerous complication of abnormal placental vascular connections. TAPS occurs due to very-small-caliber (< 1 mm) abnormal placental vascular connections which lead to chronic anemia in the donor twin and polycythemia in the recipient twin. TAPS may occur spontaneous...

Women survivors and their children born of wartime sexual violence in northern Uganda.

Girls and women who bear children owing to wartime sexual violence committed by armed actors face challenges in gaining acceptance on return to their families and societies. This study analyses the lives of women survivors and their children born of wartime sexual violence in Uganda. It draws on a population-based survey of 1,844 households in the Acholi and Lango sub-regions of northern Uganda, as well as on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted in 2014 and 2015 with 67 purposefully selected women surv...


Condylar Hyperplasia in a Monozygotic Twin Girl: An Argument About Etiology.

The diagnosis of unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) requires a combined assessment consisting of clinical, radiological, and histopathological examination. The etiology of this condition is unknown. The purpose of this study is to report a rare case of UCH in a monozygotic twin. A 15-year-old girl was referred to our department complaining of facial asymmetry and malocclusion. Computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging reveal enlargement of the left condyle and condylar ne...

Investigating the Epigenetic Discrimination of Identical Twins Using Buccal Swabs, Saliva, and Cigarette Butts in the Forensic Setting.

Monozygotic (MZ) twins are typically indistinguishable via forensic DNA profiling. Recently, we demonstrated that epigenetic differentiation of MZ twins is feasible; however, proportions of twin differentially methylated CpG sites (tDMSs) identified in reference-type blood DNA were not replicated in trace-type blood DNA. Here we investigated buccal swabs as typical forensic reference material, and saliva and cigarette butts as commonly encountered forensic trace materials. As an analog to a forensic case, w...

Fatigue symptoms in relation to neuroticism, anxiety-depression, and musculoskeletal pain. A longitudinal twin study.

The nature of the relationship between fatigue and its risk factors is poorly understood. In the present study the genetic and environmental association between anxiety-depression, musculoskeletal (MS) pain and fatigue was examined, and the role of neuroticism as a shared risk factor that may possibly explain the co-occurrence between these phenotypes was investigated in a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal twin design.

Effect of LSR polymorphism on blood lipid levels and age-specific epistatic interaction with the APOE common polymorphism.

The lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is an apolipoprotein (Apo) B and ApoE receptor that participates in the removal of TG-rich lipoproteins during the postprandial phase. LSR gene is located upstream of APOE, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since the APOE common polymorphism significantly affects the variability of lipid metabolism, this study aimed to determine the potential impact of a functional SNP rs916147 in LSR gene on lipid traits in healthy subjects and to...

Does the earned income tax credit increase children's weight? The impact of policy-driven income on childhood obesity.

I exploit substantial increases in the earned income tax credit to study how a policy-driven change in family income affects childhood obesity. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the probability of being obese increased by 3 percentage points among children whose families experienced a greater income shock. A further investigation suggests that a reduction in maternal time with children played a greater role in children's weight gain th...

Prolonged duration of persistent cell free fetal DNA from a vanishing twin.

Cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) based aneuploidy screening has provided a highly accurate, non-invasive screening test in pregnancy. Cumulatively, NIPT has an approximately 1% false positive rate. Cases of co-twin demise result in as much as 42.1% of confirmed false positive NIPT results. To date, the longest documented duration of time following ultrasound identification of first trimester co-twin demise resulting in sex chromosome discrepancy or false positive NIPT is 8 weeks. We report a false positive NIPT...

Gender-specific association of the rs6499640 polymorphism in the FTO gene with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

The fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is significantly associated with obesity, but the associations of FTO with obesity-related traits are not fully described. We aimed to investigate the association of the FTO single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6499640 with lipid levels in Chinese children. A total of 3503 children aged 6-18 years were included in the present study. Lipid levels were analyzed and the SNP rs6499640 was genotyped using the TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay. Statistically sig...

Attitudes Toward and Uptake of Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing in Twin Pregnancies.

The rate of twinning is rising and since the introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing, interest in and uptake of genetic screening and testing in twin pregnancies has not been investigated. This study aimed to explore the attitudes toward and uptake of current prenatal genetic screening and diagnostic testing options for fetal aneuploidy in twin pregnancies. Women being seen for genetic counseling with twin gestations were recruited for participation in a descriptive study with questionnaire (n = 4...

Does the heritability of cognitive abilities vary as a function of parental education? Evidence from a German twin sample.

A well-known hypothesis in the behavioral genetic literature predicts that the heritability of cognitive abilities is higher in the presence of higher socioeconomic contexts. However, studies suggest that the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on the heritability of cognitive ability may not be universal, as it has mostly been demonstrated in the United States, but not in other Western nations. In the present study we tested whether the importance of genetic and environmental effects on cognitive abilitie...

An amino acid motif in HLA-DRβ1 distinguishes patients with uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Uveitis is a visually-debilitating disorder that affects up to 30% of children with the most common forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The disease mechanisms predisposing only a subgroup of children to uveitis are unknown. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for uveitis in JIA, we conducted a genome-wide association study totalling 522 JIA cases.

3D-3D facial superimposition between monozygotic twins: A novel morphological approach to the assessment of differences due to environmental factors.

Distinction of one twin with respect to the other, based on external appearance, is challenging; nevertheless, facial morphology may provide individualizing features that may help distinguish twin siblings. This study aims at exposing an innovative method for the facial assessment in monozygotic twins for personal identification, based on the registration and comparison of 3D models of faces. Ten couples of monozygotic twins aged between 25 and 69 years were acquired twice by a stereophotogrammetric syste...

Position Sense Dysfunction Affects Proximal and Distal Arm Joints in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

It is unclear, whether proprioceptive dysfunction in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is localized affecting only specific joints or whether it is generalized affecting proximal and distal joints. Thus, this study assessed position sense acuity at the elbow and wrist in twenty children with DCD (age: 9-11 yrs.) using a joint position matching paradigm. Position sense bias (systematic error) at either joint was not significantly higher in DCD children when compared to typically developing children ...

Revisiting the Children-of-Twins Design: Improving Existing Models for the Exploration of Intergenerational Associations.

Datasets comprising twins and their children can be a useful tool for understanding the nature of intergenerational associations between parent and offspring phenotypes. In the present article we explore structural equation models previously used to analyse Children-of-Twins data, highlighting some limitations and considerations. We then present new variants of these models, showing that extending the models to include multiple offspring per parent addresses several of the limitations discussed. Accompanyin...

Physical activity reduces risk of depression at any age, finds study.

Women see no benefit from colorectal cancer screening, study finds.

Amount of Genetics Education is Low Among Didactic Programs in Dietetics.

Nutritional genomics is a growing area of research. Research has shown registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have limited knowledge of genetics. Limited research is available regarding how didactic programs in dietetics (DPDs) meet the genetics knowledge requirement of the Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND®). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the study of nutritional genomics is incorporated into undergraduate DPDs in response to the Acad...

The effects of screen media content on young children's executive functioning.

Children's exposure to screen-based media has raised concerns for many reasons. One reason is that viewing particular television content has been shown to negatively affect children's executive functioning. Yet, it is unclear whether interacting with a touchscreen device affects executive functioning in the same way as the television research suggests. In the current study, 96 2- and 3-year-old children completed executive functioning measures of working memory and response inhibition and task switching bef...

Induction of labor in twin gestation: can we predict success?

To identify factors associated with a successful induction of labor in twin pregnancies and associated maternal morbidity.

Special Education Financing and ADHD Medications: A Bitter Pill to Swallow.

Accurate diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is difficult because the major symptoms, inattentiveness and hyperactivity, can be exhibited by any child. This study finds evidence of systematic differences in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD due to third party financial incentives. In some states, due to the financing mechanism for special education, schools face a financial incentive to facilitate the identification of children with ADHD. Using variation in special educati...

Age prediction of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years: an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation.

The DNA methylation age, a good reflection of human aging process, has been used to predict chronological age of adults and newborns. However, the prediction model for children and adolescents was absent. In this study, we aimed to generate a prediction model of chronological age for children and adolescents aged 6-17 years by using age-specific DNA methylation patterns from 180 Chinese twin individuals. We identified 6,350 age-related CpGs from the epigenome-wide association analysis (N=179). 116 known age...

Inference about causation between body mass index and DNA methylation in blood from a twin family study.

Several studies have reported DNA methylation in blood to be associated with body mass index (BMI), but few have investigated causal aspects of the association. We used a twin family design to assess this association at two life points and applied a novel analytical approach to appraise the evidence for causality.

Selective IUGR in dichorionic twins: what can Doppler assessment and growth discordancy say about neonatal outcomes?

The aim of the present study was to assess, in a population of dichorionic twin pregnancies with selective growth restriction, the effect of inter-twin differences by use of Doppler velocimetry and fetal growth discordancy on perinatal outcomes.


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