PubMed Journals Articles About "Twin Study Finds Genetics Affects Where Children Look" - Page: 3 RSS

02:33 EDT 26th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Twin study finds genetics affects where children look" PubMed Articles 51–75 of 67,000+

In utero Partial Exchange Transfusion Combined with in utero Blood Transfusion for Prenatal Management of Twin Anemia-Polycythemia Sequence.

Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at risk of unique complications due to placental sharing and vascular connections between placental territories assigned for each twin. Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is an infrequent but potentially dangerous complication of abnormal placental vascular connections. TAPS occurs due to very-small-caliber (< 1 mm) abnormal placental vascular connections which lead to chronic anemia in the donor twin and polycythemia in the recipient twin. TAPS may occur spontaneous...

The association between punishment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism.

This study examined judgment about punishment and whether punishment promoted cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) children. In total, 66 6- to 12-year-olds participated in this study. Children were first asked about judgments regarding rewards and punishment in stories, and then they were asked to play the PDG with a partner in conditions with and without punishment. Results showed that children with HFA believed that ...

Investigating the Epigenetic Discrimination of Identical Twins Using Buccal Swabs, Saliva, and Cigarette Butts in the Forensic Setting.

Monozygotic (MZ) twins are typically indistinguishable via forensic DNA profiling. Recently, we demonstrated that epigenetic differentiation of MZ twins is feasible; however, proportions of twin differentially methylated CpG sites (tDMSs) identified in reference-type blood DNA were not replicated in trace-type blood DNA. Here we investigated buccal swabs as typical forensic reference material, and saliva and cigarette butts as commonly encountered forensic trace materials. As an analog to a forensic case, w...

Fatigue symptoms in relation to neuroticism, anxiety-depression, and musculoskeletal pain. A longitudinal twin study.

The nature of the relationship between fatigue and its risk factors is poorly understood. In the present study the genetic and environmental association between anxiety-depression, musculoskeletal (MS) pain and fatigue was examined, and the role of neuroticism as a shared risk factor that may possibly explain the co-occurrence between these phenotypes was investigated in a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal twin design.

Long-term outcomes for monochorionic twins after laser therapy in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome typically occurs in the second trimester in 10-15% of monochorionic twin pregnancies. Vascular anastomoses of monochorionic placentae are the underlying cause of the development of the syndrome. If a blood flow imbalance occurs, one fetus becomes the so-called donor twin and the other the recipient. If untreated, perinatal mortality is 80-90%. Fetoscopic laser coagulation of the vascular anastomoses destroys the cause of the syndrome and leads to dual twin survival rates of...

Attitudes Toward and Uptake of Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing in Twin Pregnancies.

The rate of twinning is rising and since the introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing, interest in and uptake of genetic screening and testing in twin pregnancies has not been investigated. This study aimed to explore the attitudes toward and uptake of current prenatal genetic screening and diagnostic testing options for fetal aneuploidy in twin pregnancies. Women being seen for genetic counseling with twin gestations were recruited for participation in a descriptive study with questionnaire (n = 4...

Does the earned income tax credit increase children's weight? The impact of policy-driven income on childhood obesity.

I exploit substantial increases in the earned income tax credit to study how a policy-driven change in family income affects childhood obesity. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the probability of being obese increased by 3 percentage points among children whose families experienced a greater income shock. A further investigation suggests that a reduction in maternal time with children played a greater role in children's weight gain th...

Does the heritability of cognitive abilities vary as a function of parental education? Evidence from a German twin sample.

A well-known hypothesis in the behavioral genetic literature predicts that the heritability of cognitive abilities is higher in the presence of higher socioeconomic contexts. However, studies suggest that the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on the heritability of cognitive ability may not be universal, as it has mostly been demonstrated in the United States, but not in other Western nations. In the present study we tested whether the importance of genetic and environmental effects on cognitive abilitie...

Gender-specific association of the rs6499640 polymorphism in the FTO gene with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

The fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is significantly associated with obesity, but the associations of FTO with obesity-related traits are not fully described. We aimed to investigate the association of the FTO single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6499640 with lipid levels in Chinese children. A total of 3503 children aged 6-18 years were included in the present study. Lipid levels were analyzed and the SNP rs6499640 was genotyped using the TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay. Statistically sig...

An amino acid motif in HLA-DRβ1 distinguishes patients with uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Uveitis is a visually-debilitating disorder that affects up to 30% of children with the most common forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The disease mechanisms predisposing only a subgroup of children to uveitis are unknown. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for uveitis in JIA, we conducted a genome-wide association study totalling 522 JIA cases.

A Comparison of Child Blood Lead Levels in Urban and Rural Children Ages 5-12 Years Living in the Border Region of El Paso, Texas.

Lead exposure is an unresolved pediatric health risk and disproportionately affects children in lower-income neighborhoods. Residences with children younger than age 5 years are the focus of mitigation policies; however, studies have shown that older children between the ages of 5 and 12 years also are at risk of central nervous system effects. Whether historically contaminated neighborhoods present ongoing risk to older children also is of concern. This study compared the blood lead levels (BLLs) of olde...

Comparative Study of the Clinical Pathology, Immunophenotype, Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Status, and Gene Rearrangements in Adult and Children Patients With Hydroa Vacciniforme-Like Lymphoproliferative Disorder.

Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLPD) is a rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma that mainly affects children.

Revisiting the Children-of-Twins Design: Improving Existing Models for the Exploration of Intergenerational Associations.

Datasets comprising twins and their children can be a useful tool for understanding the nature of intergenerational associations between parent and offspring phenotypes. In the present article we explore structural equation models previously used to analyse Children-of-Twins data, highlighting some limitations and considerations. We then present new variants of these models, showing that extending the models to include multiple offspring per parent addresses several of the limitations discussed. Accompanyin...

Intertwin membrane separation in dichorionic twin pregnancy associated with intrauterine co-twin demise.

A 25-year-old woman (G P ) with a spontaneous dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy was referred to our institute. The patient provided written informed consent for the purposes of this report. She had no history of invasive procedures such as amniocentesis, and showed no complications such as infection or trauma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The role of parental anxiety, depression, and psychological stress level on the development of early-childhood caries in children.

It is important to understand how the psychological status of parents affects oral health in children.

Women see no benefit from colorectal cancer screening, study finds.

Physical activity reduces risk of depression at any age, finds study.

Induction of labor in twin gestation: can we predict success?

To identify factors associated with a successful induction of labor in twin pregnancies and associated maternal morbidity.

The effects of screen media content on young children's executive functioning.

Children's exposure to screen-based media has raised concerns for many reasons. One reason is that viewing particular television content has been shown to negatively affect children's executive functioning. Yet, it is unclear whether interacting with a touchscreen device affects executive functioning in the same way as the television research suggests. In the current study, 96 2- and 3-year-old children completed executive functioning measures of working memory and response inhibition and task switching bef...

Inference about causation between body mass index and DNA methylation in blood from a twin family study.

Several studies have reported DNA methylation in blood to be associated with body mass index (BMI), but few have investigated causal aspects of the association. We used a twin family design to assess this association at two life points and applied a novel analytical approach to appraise the evidence for causality.

Age prediction of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years: an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation.

The DNA methylation age, a good reflection of human aging process, has been used to predict chronological age of adults and newborns. However, the prediction model for children and adolescents was absent. In this study, we aimed to generate a prediction model of chronological age for children and adolescents aged 6-17 years by using age-specific DNA methylation patterns from 180 Chinese twin individuals. We identified 6,350 age-related CpGs from the epigenome-wide association analysis (N=179). 116 known age...

Special Education Financing and ADHD Medications: A Bitter Pill to Swallow.

Accurate diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is difficult because the major symptoms, inattentiveness and hyperactivity, can be exhibited by any child. This study finds evidence of systematic differences in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD due to third party financial incentives. In some states, due to the financing mechanism for special education, schools face a financial incentive to facilitate the identification of children with ADHD. Using variation in special educati...

Evaluation of association of DRD2 TaqIA and -141C InsDel polymorphisms with food intake and anthropometric data in children at the first stages of development.

The reward sensation after food intake may be different between individuals and variants in genes related to the dopaminergic system may indicate a different response in people exposed to the same environmental factors. This study investigated the association of TaqIA (rs1800497) and -141C InsDel (rs1799732) variants in DRD2/ANKK1 gene with food intake and adiposity parameters in a cohort of children. The sample consisted of 270 children followed until 7 to 8 years old. DNA was extracted from blood and poly...

The rate of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome/transient tachypnea in the newborn and the amniotic lamellar body count in twin pregnancies compared with singleton pregnancies.

Whether or not the period of fetal lung maturity differs between twin and singleton pregnancies has not been clarified. We examined whether or not fetal lung maturity and fetal lung absorption are achieved earlier in twin fetuses than in singleton fetuses.

Perinatal and Peripartum Outcomes in Vanishing Twin Pregnancies Achieved by In Vitro Fertilization.

To compare perinatal and peripartum outcomes of vanishing twin gestations with singleton and dichorionic twin gestations in pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization.

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