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PubMed Journals Articles About "Mitochondrial Dysfunction Atherosclerosis" - Page: 3 RSS

18:09 EDT 18th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

Mitochondrial Dysfunction Atherosclerosis PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Mitochondrial Dysfunction Atherosclerosis articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Mitochondrial Dysfunction Atherosclerosis" PubMed Articles 51–75 of 5,900+

Andrographolide sensitizes Hep-2 human laryngeal cancer cells to carboplatin-induced apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species levels.

Andrographolide is a natural diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata that has been proposed as an anticancer agent as well as a chemosensitizer for use in combination with anticancer drugs. Carboplatin is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for advanced laryngeal carcinoma. However, the clinical efficacy of carboplatin is limited by drug resistance and side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether andrographolide has a synergistic antitumor effect with carboplatin on human laryngeal canc...


Elevated indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase enzyme activity in a novel mouse model of HIV-associated atherosclerosis.

HIV atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent a significant human health burden in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The pathogenesis of HIV atherosclerosis is still poorly understood, due, in part, to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity is the first and rate-limiting step in tryptophan catabolism and is measured by the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (KTR). The serum KTR is a biomarker of inflammation and has recen...

Suboptimal stimulation by weak agonist epitope variants does not drive dysfunction of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones.

To assess whether weakly recognized epitope variants induce anergy in HIV-1-specific CD8 T lymphocyte (CTL) clones as a mechanism of dysfunction.


Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and Delirium During Sepsis.

Studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies some forms of sepsis-induced organ failure. We sought to test the hypothesis that variations in mitochondrial DNA haplogroup affect susceptibility to sepsis-associated delirium, a common manifestation of acute brain dysfunction during sepsis.

Propofol But Not Desflurane Maintains Rat Cerebral Arteriolar Responses to Acetylcholine During Acute Hyperglycemia.

Acute hyperglycemia causes vascular endothelial dysfunction in various organs including the cerebral vessels. It is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in the perioperative period. The impact of anesthetic agents on cerebral vasodilatory responses during hyperglycemia remains unclear. We investigated endothelial function in rat cerebral arterioles during acute hyperglycemia, under propofol or desflurane anesthesia.

Resistance Exercise-induced Changes in Muscle Metabolism are Load-dependent.

Lower-load (LL), higher-repetition resistance exercise training (RET) can increase muscle mass similar degree as higher-load (HL), lower-repetition RET. However, little is known about how LL and HL RET modulate other aspects of the RET phenotype such as satellite cells, myonuclei, and mitochondrial proteins. We aimed to investigate changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, satellite cell activity, myonuclear addition, and mitochondrial protein content following prolonged RET with LL and HL RET.

Role of Pattern Electroretinogram in Ocular Hypertension and Early Glaucoma.

To test if pattern electroretinogram (PERG) can early detect retinal ganglion cells dysfunction in ocular hypertension.

Danhong Injection Attenuates High-fat-induced Atherosclerosis and Macrophage Lipid Accumulation by Regulating PI3K/AKT Insulin Pathway.

High-fat diet (HFD) is reported to induce atherosclerosis and insulin resistance (IR). Macrophage lipid accumulation has been implicated as key mediators during the development of HFD-induced atherosclerosis. Traditional Chinese formula, which has long been used to improve disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism of patients, is now gradually being used as complementary therapy. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Dan-hong injection (DHI), a Chinese medicine used for the treatment of corona...

Nebivolol improves obesity-induced vascular remodelling by suppressing NLRP3 activation.

Nebivolol is a novel β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blocker with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced vascular dysfunction. Our study aimed to explore the effect of nebivolol on the NLRP3 inflammasome and vascular remodelling in diet-induced obese rats. Eight-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with either a standard chow diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Next, the obese rats were subdivided into...

Brown seaweed (AquaArom) supplementation increases food intake and improves growth, antioxidant status and resistance to temperature stress in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

Seaweeds represent a vast resource that remains underutilized as an ingredient in aquafeeds. Here we probed the effect of addition of AquaArom, a seaweed meal derived from brown seaweeds (Laminaria sp., kelp), to fish feed on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and temperature responsiveness of mitochondrial respiration. A commercial salmonid feed was mixed with 0 (control), 3, 6 and 10% seaweed and fed to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts for 30 days. The smolts consumed more of the seaweed-supplem...

BK polyomavirus and cytomegalovirus - a closer link than expected?

After kidney transplantation, immunosuppressive treatment disturbs the individual balance between virus replication and the humoral and cellular immune response resulting in an elevated incidence of severe viral complications due to primary infection or reactivation. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections can lead to CMV disease and graft dysfunction (1) whereas BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) nephropathy is one of the most frequent causes of graft failure (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Apelin-36 mitigates MPTP/MPP-induced neurotoxicity: involvement of α-synuclein and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra compacta (SNpc) which leads to the behavioral dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Apelin-36 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP)/1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP)-induced neurotoxicity. The treatment with Apelin-36 significantly alleviated the MPTP-induced the behavioral dysfunction and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the SNpc of mice, and also...

MitoQ ameliorates testicular damage induced by gamma irradiation in rats: Modulation of mitochondrial apoptosis and steroidogenesis.

The deleterious effect of gamma radiation on testicular tissue is a challenging problem in nuclear medicine. This study investigated the potential radioprotective effect of mitoquinol (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, against testicular damage induced by gamma irradiation in rats.

Contribution of brown adipose tissue to human energy metabolism.

The present "obesogenic' environment has favored excessive energy intake resulting in the current obesity epidemic and its associated diseases. The epidemic has incentivized scientists to develop novel behavioral and pharmacological strategies that enhance energy expenditure to compensate for excessive energy intake. Although physical activity is effective to increase total energy expenditure, it is insufficient to induce negative energy balance and weight loss. With the discovery of brown adipose tissue (B...

Phenolic compounds from coffee by-products modulate adipogenesis-related inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance in adipocytes, via insulin/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

The aim was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of aqueous extracts from coffee silverskin (CSE) and husk (CHE) and their main phenolics on adipogenesis, obesity-related inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance, in vitro. Coffee by-products extracts (31-500 μg mL) and pure phenolics (100 μmol L) reduced lipid accumulation and increased mitochondrial activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Also showed lower expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and dimini...

Gradual differentiation and confinement of the cardiac conduction system as indicated by marker gene expression.

The components of the cardiac conduction system, responsible for coordinated activation of the heart chambers, are well defined and their cells differ in gene expression profile and phenotype from those of the surrounding working myocardium. Yet, when and on what basis the myocardium of each of the conduction system components become distinguishable from other myocardium during heart development has not been well established. To identify and assess cell type-specific expression profiles and differentiation ...

The effects of kahweol, a diterpene present in coffee, on the mitochondria of the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide.

The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system located in the mitochondria is the main source of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mammals. The mitochondria are also the main site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in those cells. Disruption of the mitochondrial redox biology has been seen in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In this regard, we have tested here whether kahweol (KW; CHO), a diterpene present in coffee, would be able to promote mitochondrial protection in the huma...

DYRK1A aggravates β cell dysfunction and apoptosis by promoting the phosphorylation and degradation of IRS2.

In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), which is one of the most important regulators of Alzheimer's disease development, in islet β cell dysfunction and apoptosis. We found significantly increased expression of DYRK1A in both the hippocampus and pancreatic islets of APP/PS1 transgenic mice than in wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we observed that the overexpression of DYRK1A greatly aggravated β cell apoptosis. Most...

Physics-based oligomeric models of the yeast mitofusin Fzo1 at the molecular scale in the context of membrane docking.

Tethering and homotypic fusion of mitochondrial outer membranes is mediated by large GTPases of the dynamin-related proteins family called the mitofusins. The yeast mitofusin Fzo1 forms high molecular weight complexes and its assembly during membrane fusion likely involves the formation of high order complexes. Consistent with this possibility, mitofusins form oligomers in both cis (on the same lipid bilayer) and trans to mediate membrane attachment and fusion. Here, we utilize our recent Fzo1 model to inve...

Innovative nanotechnologies for enhancing nucleic acids/gene therapy: Controlling intracellular trafficking to targeted biodistribution.

Nanomedicine promises to play an important role in next generation therapy, including Nucleic acid/Gene therapy. To accomplish this, innovative nanotechnologies will be needed to support nanomedicine by controlling not only the biodistribution but also the intracellular trafficking of macromolecules such as RNA/DNA. A multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) was developed to meet this requirement. We herein provide an update regarding the functions of the MEND system focusing on the introduction of ...

Epilepsy and ultra-structural heart changes: The role of catecholaminergic toxicity and myocardial fibrosis. What can we learn from cardiology?

In this article, we explore the interaction of brain and heart in patients with epilepsy (PWE), focusing on new insights into possible pathways from epilepsy, catecholaminergic toxicity, subtle cardiac changes and sudden death. Initial evidence and biological plausibility point to an interaction between autonomic dysfunction, higher sympathetic drive, myocardial catecholaminergic toxicity and cardiac fibrosis resulting in subtle myocardial changes in structure, function, arrhythmogenesis and/or a heart fail...

The genome of the marine monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis: Genome-wide expression profiles of 28 cytochrome P450 genes in response to chlorpyrifos and 2-ethyl-phenanthrene.

Brachionus spp. (Rotifera: Monogononta) are globally distributed in aquatic environments and play important roles in the aquatic ecosystem. The marine monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis is considered a suitable model organism for ecology, evolution, and ecotoxicology. In this study, we assembled and characterized the B. plicatilis genome. The total length of the assembled genome was 106.9 Mb and the number of final scaffolds was 716 with an N50 value of 1.15 Mb and a GC content of 26.75%. A total of 2...

Glycitin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs pathway activation in mice.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a pulmonary diffuse dysfunction disease caused by immoderate inflammatory response breaking the coordination of physiological structures and functions, and there are very few effective treatments to reduce high morbidity of ALI in critical patients. Glycitin is a natural ingredient derived from the seeds of leguminous plants and may have potent anti-inflammation features. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammation effect of glycitin on LPS-induced ALI in mi...

8-Chloroadenosine induces apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells through the activation of the unfolded protein response.

Infiltration of leukocytes within the vessel at sites of inflammation and the subsequent generation of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants, including hypochlorous acid, are key characteristics of atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid is a potent oxidant that reacts readily with most biological molecules, including DNA and RNA. This results in nucleic acid modification and the formation of different chlorinated products. These products have been used as biomarkers of inflammation, owing to their presence in elevat...

The role of the antidiabetic drug metformin in the treatment of endocrine tumors.

Incidence of endocrine cancers is rising every year. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that demonstrates the anti-cancer effects of an anti-diabetic drug - metformin - in endocrine malignancies. We performed a literature review utilizing the Pubmed, Medline and clinicaltrials.gov databases using the keyword "metformin" plus the following terms: "thyroid cancer," "thyroid nodules," "parathyroid," "hyperparathyroidism," "adrenal adenoma," "Cushing syndrome," "hyperaldosteronism," "adrenocortical ...


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