PubMed Journals Articles About "Indinavir Sulfate Abacavir Sulfate Amprenavir Nelfinavir Mesylate Efavirenz" - Page: 3 RSS

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Showing "Indinavir sulfate Abacavir sulfate Amprenavir Nelfinavir mesylate Efavirenz" PubMed Articles 51–75 of 903

Genetic Variation, Magnesium Sulfate Exposure, and Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Following Preterm Birth.

 To evaluate the association of magnesium sulfate (MgSO) exposure and candidate gene polymorphisms with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following preterm birth.

Keratan Sulfate Phenotype in the β-1,3-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase-7-Null Mouse Cornea.

Synthesis of keratan sulfate (KS) relies on coordinated action of multiple enzymes, including the N-acetylglucosamine-transferring enzyme, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-7 (β3GnT7). A mouse model deficient in β3GnT7 was developed to explore structural changes in KS and the extracellular matrix (ECM; i.e., the corneal stroma), elucidate the KS biosynthesis mechanism, and understand its role in corneal organization.

Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of the Choline Sulfatase from Sinorhizobium melliloti: A Class I Sulfatase Specific for an Alkyl Sulfate Ester.

Hydrolysis of organic sulfate esters proceeds by two distinct mechanisms, water attacking at either sulfur (S-O bond cleavage) or carbon (C-O bond cleavage). In primary and secondary alkyl sulfates attack at carbon is favored, whereas in aromatic sulfates and sulfated sugars attack at sulfur is preferred. This mechanistic distinction is mirrored in the classification of enzymes that catalyze sulfate ester hydrolysis: arylsulfatases catalyze S-O cleavage in sulfate sugars and arylsulfates and alkyl sulfatase...

Magnesium sulfate versus esomeprazole impact on the neonates of preeclamptic rats.

Preeclampsia represents a major complication of pregnancy, associated with greater maternal and fetal complications. We compared the effects of esomeprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the deleterious effects observed on the mother and neonates in experimentally induced preeclampsia in rats.

The effect of isohydric hemodialysis on the binding and removal of uremic retention solutes.

There is growing evidence that the accumulation of protein- bound uremic retention solutes, such as indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate and kynurenic acid, play a role in the accelerated cardiovascular disease seen in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Protein-binding, presumably to albumin, renders these solutes poor-dialyzable. We previously observed that the free fraction of indoxyl sulfate was markedly reduced at the end of hemodialysis. We hypothesized that solute binding might be pH-dependent and...

Biochemical composition and antioxidant activity affected by spraying potassium sulfate in black grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Rasha).

The physiological and metabolic processes involved with grapevine growth and production are influenced by key macro and micro-nutrients. Potassium is an essential plant nutrient that affects growth and fruit quality. In this study, the impact of foliar spraying of potassium sulfate (K SO ) on qualitative characteristics of grape berries was evaluated in the cultivar 'Rasha', a commonly cultivated cultivar in Kurdistan province of Iran. Leaves of the fully-grown vines were sprayed with each of the 1.5 g L an...

Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS3ST2) displays an unexpected subcellular localization in the plasma membrane.

Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation can be catalysed by seven 3-O-sulfotransferases (HS3STs) in humans, still it is the rarest modification in HS and its biological function is yet misunderstood. HS3ST2 and HS3ST3B exhibit the same activity in vitro. They are however differently expressed in macrophages depending on cell environment, which suggests that they may be involved in distinct cellular processes. Here, we hypothesized that both isozymes might also display distinct subcellular localizations.

Lower-Extremity Osteomyelitis Treatment Using Calcium Sulfate/Hydroxyapatite Bone Void Filler with Antibiotics .

Over a 74-month period (∼6 years), 143 lower-extremity osteomyelitis locations in 125 patients were treated with a calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite liquid bone void filler with antibiotic(s).

The origin and migration of the dissolved sulfate from precipitation in Seoul, Korea.

This study incorporated stable isotope analyses with chemical analyses to determine the origin and migration of sulfur sources in East Asia, and these findings were compared with our decadal research from 2000 to 2001 and 2002 to 2003. The multiple sulfur isotope composition (S,S andS) of the dissolved sulfate in precipitation was first measured from 2011 to 2013 in Seoul, South Korea. The δSvalues were -1.1‰ to 7.9‰ (avg. 3.6‰), strongly suggesting that sulfur derived from the combustion of Chinese...

Isolation of recombinant human antithrombin isoforms by Cellufine Sulfate affinity chromatography.

Human antithrombin (hAT) is a major serine protease inhibitor that regulates blood coagulation in human plasma, and it has been applied for the treatment of antithrombin (AT) deficiency and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In the past, hAT for therapeutic use has been obtained from human plasma; however, hAT can now be sourced from transgenic animals and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by recombinant technology. The dominant form of hAT in plasma is the α form, which is glycosylated with fou...

2,3-Di-O-sulfo glucuronic acid: An unmodified and unusual residue in a highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate from Litopenaeus vannamei.

The occurrence of a natural and unmodified highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate from Litopenaeus vannamei heads (sCS) is herein reported. Its partial digestion by Chondroitinases AC and ABC together with its electrophoretic migration profile revealed it as a highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate despite its average molecular weight being similar to CSA. Using orthogonal 1D/2D NMR experiments, the anomeric signals (δ 4.62/106.0) corresponding to unusual 2,3-di-O-Sulfo-GlcA (∼36%), U33S (δ 4.42/84.1, ∼63%)...

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans as novel drivers of leucocyte infiltration in multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis presents with profound changes in the network of molecules involved in maintaining central nervous system architecture, the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix components, particularly the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, have functions beyond structural support including their potential interaction with, and regulation of, inflammatory molecules. To investigate the roles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in multiple sclerosis, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalo...

The effect of increasing the sulfation level of chondroitin sulfate on anticoagulant specific activity and activation of the kinin system.

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) was identified as a contaminant in certain heparin preparations as the cause of adverse reactions in patients. OSCS was found to possess both plasma anticoagulant activity and the ability to activate prekallikrein to kallikrein. Differentially sulfated chondroitin sulfates were prepared by synthetic modification of chondroitin sulfate and were compared to the activity of OSCS purified from contaminated heparin. Whilst chondroitin sulfate was found to have minimal anti...

Early Administration of Magnesium Sulfate during Open Fetal Myelomeningocele Repair Reduces the Dose of Inhalational Anesthesia.

Optimal uterine relaxation is achieved through higher minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of inhalational anesthetics, increasing risks to mother and fetus. Our objective was to determine if earlier administration of magnesium sulfate would reduce the requirement of inhalational anesthetics in fetal myelomeningocele repair.

Structure and biophysical characterisation of the human full-length Neurturin-GFRa2 complex - a role for heparan sulfate in signalling.

Neurturin (NRTN) provides trophic support to neurons and is considered a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. It binds to its co-receptor GFRa2 and the resulting NRTN:GFRa2 complex activates the transmembrane receptors RET or NCAM. We report the crystal structure of NRTN, alone and in complex with GFRa2. This is the first crystal structure of a GFRa with all three domains and shows that domain 1 does not interact directly with NRTN, but may support an interaction wi...

Quantification of SO Oxidation on Interfacial Surfaces of Acidic Micro-Droplets: Implication for Ambient Sulfate Formation.

Sulfate formation on the surface of aqueous micro-droplets was investigated using a spray-chamber reactor coupled to an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer that was calibrated using NaSO(aq) as a function of pH. The observed formation of SO, SO, and HSO at pH < 3.5 without the additional of other oxidants indicates that an efficient oxidation pathway takes place involving direct interfacial electron transfer from SO to O on the surface of aqueous micro-droplets. Compared to the well-studied sulfate fo...

LOw dose MAGnesium sulfate versus HIgh dose in the early management of rapid atrial fibrillation: randomised controlled double blind study.

We aim to determine the benefit of two different doses magnesium sulfate (MgS) compared to placebo in rate control of rapid atrial fibrillation (AF) managed in the emergency department (ED).

Redox changes in speciation and solubility of arsenic in paddy soils as affected by sulfur concentrations.

A substantial amount of sulfate is often supplied in paddy fields with concomitant applications of chemical fertilizers and manure for rice growth. It is unclear how solubility and speciation of arsenic (As) are affected by the levels of soil sulfate and their relationship to soil redox status and sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) speciation in a short cycle of soil reducing (flooding) and oxidizing (drying) periods. The objective of this study was to investigate the solubility of As in relation to chemical speciati...

Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates fetal membrane inflammation in a time-dependent manner.

Chorioamnionitis and infection-associated inflammation are major causes of preterm birth. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO ) is widely used in obstetrics as a tocolytic; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. This study sought to investigate how MgSO modulates infection-associated inflammation in fetal membranes (FMs), and whether the response was time dependent.

Hydroxylated and sulfated metabolites of commonly observed airborne polychlorinated biphenyls display selective uptake and toxicity in N27, SH-SY5Y, and HepG2 cells.

Although neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity have long been associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), less is known about the selective toxicity of those hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and PCB sulfates that are metabolites derived from exposure to PCBs found in indoor air. We have examined the toxicity of OH-PCBs and PCB sulfates derived from PCBs 3, 8, 11, and 52 in two neural cell lines (N27 and SH-SY5Y) and an hepatic cell line (HepG2). With the exception of a similar toxicity seen for N27 ...

Magnesium sulfate reduces formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats with normal magnesium serum levels.

In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain.

Tobramycin-impregnated calcium sulfate pellets for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in children and adolescents.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the outcome and efficacy of treatment in a homogeneous group of skeletally immature patients with chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones managed by a combination of radical debridement and insertion of tobramycin-impregnated calcium sulfate pellets to fill the bone defect in a single-stage procedure. Between 2011 and 2016, 12 skeletally immature patients were treated surgically by the reported technique. Single-stage surgery using tobramycin-impregnated calcium sulfate ...

Comparison of the Oral Absorption, Distribution, Excretion and Bioavailability of Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Gluconate and Zinc-Enriched Yeast in Rats.

The oral absorption, distribution, excretion and bioavailability of zinc sulfate (ZnS), zinc gluconate (ZnG) and zinc-enriched yeast (ZnY) in rats were fully and systemically compared for the first time.

A novel aerobic sulfate reduction process in landfill mineralized refuse.

It is thought that mineralized refuse could be excavated from almost-full landfill sites to provide space for the increasing burden of municipal solid waste. When excavating, however, the HS emissions from the mineralized waste need to be considered carefully. In an attempt to understand how HS emissions might change during this excavation process, we carried out a series of tests, including exposing anaerobic mineralized refuse to oxygen, isolating and determining possible functional bacteria, and characte...

Effects of mercury addition on microbial community composition and nitrate removal inside permeable reactive barriers.

Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) remove nitrogen from groundwater by enhancing microbial denitrification. The PRBs consist of woodchips that provide carbon for denitrifiers, but these woodchips also support other anaerobic microbes, including sulfate-reducing bacteria. Some of these anaerobes have the ability to methylate inorganic mercury present in groundwater. Methylmercury is hazardous to human health, so it is essential to understand whether PRBs promote mercury methylation. We examined microbial com...

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