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PubMed Journal Database | Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior - Page: 4 RSS

23:14 EDT 28th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 76–100 of 498 from Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior

Posterior brain lesions selectively alter alpha oscillatory activity and predict visual performance in hemianopic patients.

Alpha oscillatory frequency and amplitude have been linked to visual processing and to the excitability of the visual cortex at rest. Therefore, posterior brain lesions, which damage the neural circuits of the visual system might induce alterations in the alpha oscillatory activity. To investigate this hypothesis, EEG activity was recorded during eyes-closed resting state in patients with hemianopia with posterior brain lesions, patients without hemianopia with anterior brain lesions and age-matched healthy...

Working memory prioritization impacts neural recovery from distraction.

The ability to protect goal-relevant information from disruption over short intervals is a hallmark of working memory. Recent behavioral data suggest that high-priority items in working memory are more vulnerable to disruption. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the hypothesis that prioritization of working memories might impact the recovery of their neural representation(s) after distraction. A delay-period retrospective cue informed participants which of two memory items (a face or ...

Neurofunctional correlates of body-ownership and sense of agency: A meta-analytical account of self-consciousness.

Self-consciousness consists of several dissociable experiences, including the sense of ownership of one's body and the sense of agency over one's action consequences. The relationship between body-ownership and the sense of agency has been described by different neurocognitive models, each providing specific neurofunctional predictions. According to an "additive" model, the sense of agency entails body-ownership, while an alternative "independence" hypothesis suggests that they represent two qualitatively d...

White matter correlates of contextual pavlovian fear extinction and the role of anxiety in healthy humans.

Pavlovian contextual fear extinction is viewed as an important mechanism for behavioral adaptation in everyday life, including challenging situations of stress and anxiety. It has frequently been shown to relate to the function of brain areas like the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while the role of structural properties, like white matter tracts in these regions, has been less studied. We employed diffusion tensor imaging to determine structural white matter connectivity (cingulum and unc...

Auditory deviance detection in the human insula: An intracranial EEG study.

The human insula is known to be involved in auditory processing, but knowledge about its precise functional role and the underlying electrophysiology is limited. To assess its role in automatic auditory deviance detection we analyzed the EEG high frequency activity (HFA; 75-145 Hz) and ERPs from 90 intracranial insular channels across 16 patients undergoing pre-surgical intracranial monitoring for epilepsy treatment. Subjects passively listened to a stream of standard and deviant tones differing in four ph...

Diffusion kurtosis imaging of gray matter in schizophrenia.

Prior postmortem studies have shown gray matter (GM) microstructural abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, few studies to date have examined GM microstructural integrity in schizophrenia in vivo. Here, we employed diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) to test for differences in GM microstructure in eighteen schizophrenia (SZ) patients versus nineteen healthy controls (HC). GM microstructure was characterized in each participant using DKI-derived metrics of mean kurtosis (MK) and mean diffusivity (MD). Indivi...

Treatment-related changes in neural activation vary according to treatment response and extent of spared tissue in patients with chronic aphasia.

Neuroimaging studies of aphasia recovery have linked treatment-related improvements in language processing to changes in functional brain activation in left hemisphere language regions and their right hemisphere homologues. Although there is some consensus that better behavioral outcomes are achieved when activation is restored to the left hemisphere, the circumstances that dictate how and why regions in both hemispheres respond to naming therapy are still unclear. In this study, an fMRI picture-naming task...

Distinct associations between fronto-striatal glutamate concentrations and callous-unemotional traits and proactive aggression in disruptive behavior.

Disruptive behavior is associated with societally and personally problematic levels of aggression and has been linked to abnormal structure and function of fronto-amygdala-striatal regions. Abnormal glutamatergic signalling within this network may play a role in aggression. However, disruptive behavior does not represent a homogeneous construct, but can be fractionated across several dimensions. Of particular interest, callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to modulate the severity, neural and beha...

Quality and temporal properties of premonitory urges in patients with skin picking disorder.

Skin picking is a newly recognized obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder in DSM-5. Similar to some repetitive behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premonitory urges are assumed to play a critical role in maintaining skin picking behavior, by creating a vicious cycle. The present study is the first to investigate the quality of premonitory urges, as well as the temporal relationship between urges and skin picking behavior in individuals with skin picking...

How words and space collide: Lexical and sublexical reading are reliant on separable reflexive and voluntary attention regions in hybrid tasks.

Reading ability requires the coordination of many cognitive processes to be effective, including spatial attention. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence from Ekstrand et al. (2019) suggests that lexical reading is more associated with reflexive attentional orienting regions, whereas sublexical reading is more associated with voluntary attentional orienting regions. The current research sought to further examine the neuroanatomical relationship between reading and attention using a n...

Early detection of subtle motor dysfunction in cognitively normal subjects with amyloid-β positivity.

Since the current neuropsychological assessments are not sensitive to subtle deficits that may be present in cognitively normal subjects with amyloid-β positivity, more accurate and efficient measures are needed. Our aim was to investigate the presence of subtle motor deficits in this population and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β levels. We adapted the Finger Tapping Task to measure tapping speed and intrasubject variability. Seventy-two right-handed participants completed the s...

Frequency-tagged visual evoked responses track syllable effects in visual word recognition.

The processing of syllables in visual word recognition was investigated using a novel paradigm based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs). French words were presented to proficient readers in a delayed naming task. Words were split into two segments, the first of which was flickered at 18.75 Hz and the second at 25 Hz. The first segment either matched (congruent condition) or did not match (incongruent condition) the first syllable. The SSVEP responses in the congruent condition showed increa...

Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the posterior parietal cortex on episodic memory reconsolidation.

Consolidated memories may return to labile/unstable states after their reactivation, thus requiring a restabilization process that is known as reconsolidation. During this time-limited reconsolidation window, reactivated existing memories can be strengthened, weakened or updated with new information. Previous studies have shown that non-invasive stimulation of the lateral prefrontal cortex after memory reactivation strengthened existing verbal episodic memories through reconsolidation, an effect documented ...

Implicit learning impairment identified via predictive saccades in Huntington's disease correlates with extended cortico-striatal atrophy.

The ability to anticipate events and execute motor commands prior to a sensory event is an essential capability for human's everyday life. This implicitly learned anticipatory behavior depends on the past performance of repeated sensorimotor interactions timed with external cues. This kind of predictive behavior has been shown to be compromised in neurological disorders such as Huntington disease (HD), in which neural atrophy includes key cortical and basal ganglia regions. To investigate the neural basis o...

The link between reading ability and visual spatial attention across development.

Interacting with a cluttered and dynamic environment requires making decisions about visual information at relevant locations while ignoring irrelevant locations. Typical adults can do this with covert spatial attention: prioritizing particular visual field locations even without moving the eyes. Deficits of covert spatial attention have been implicated in developmental dyslexia, a specific reading disability. Previous studies of children with dyslexia, however, have been complicated by group differences in...

Does writing handedness affect neural representation of symbolic number? An fMRI adaptation study.

A key question in the field of numerical cognition is how the human brain represents numerical symbols (e.g., Arabic digits). A large body of research has implicated left parietal regions in symbolic number processing. One possible explanation for this lateralization of neural activity is the handedness of participants. Specifically, participants in neuroimaging research are almost exclusively right-handed. The current study sought to probe whether number representation in the brain is associated with hand ...

Individuation of parts of a single object and multiple distinct objects relies on a common neural mechanism in inferior intraparietal sulcus.

Object identification and enumeration rely on the ability to distinguish, or individuate, objects from the background. Does multiple object individuation operate only over bounded, separable objects or does it operate equally over connected features within a single object? While previous fMRI experiments suggest that connectedness affects the processing and enumeration of objects, recent behavioral and EEG studies demonstrated that parallel individuation occurs over both object parts and distinct objects. H...

Examining the representational content of perirhinal cortex and posterior ventral visual pathway regions when maintenance of visual information is interrupted.

The perirhinal cortex (PRC) is known to support recognition memory, working memory, and perception for objects. Often, information must be maintained in working memory in the face of ongoing visual perception, raising the question of how PRC and other regions supporting object representation deal with this conflict. Here, we used functional MRI to examine the representational content of human ventral visual pathway (VVP) regions, including perirhinal cortex (PRC), during a visual delayed match-to-sample tas...

Visual processing speed as a marker of immaturity in lexical but not sublexical dyslexia.

A visual attention span (VAS) deficit has been widely reported in the Developmental Dyslexia (DD) literature, however, consensus regarding what underlies this problem and the nature of its relationship with reading ability remains elusive. Thirty-two children with DD (15 females) were compared with 23 age matched (12 females) and 17 reading matched controls (9 females) on the combined Theory of Visual Attention (CombiTVA) paradigm with traditional letter and novel symbol conditions. The DD group performed m...

Do prism and other adaptation paradigms really measure the same processes?

Sensorimotor plasticity allows the nervous system to set up appropriate motor and sensory compensations when individuals face changing demands in a given motor task. A much-debated question in neuroscience research is the identification of processes that encompass this capacity of plasticity. Prism adaptation is the oldest experimental paradigm that has been used to achieve this goal (Helmholtz, 1867). Since 1990's, other paradigms have emerged such as visuomotor rotations or dynamical perturbations (inerti...

The urge to blink in Tourette syndrome.

Functional neuroimaging studies have attempted to explore brain activity that occurs with tic occurrence in subjects with Tourette syndrome (TS). However, they are limited by the difficulty of disambiguating brain activity required to perform a tic, or activity caused by the tic, from brain activity that generates a tic. Inhibiting ticcing following the urge to tic is important to patients' experience of tics and we hypothesize that inhibition of a compelling motor response to a natural urge will differ in ...

The role of the right premotor cortex and temporo-parietal junction in defensive responses to visual threats.

Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that several brain areas are involved in detecting threats and activating defensive responses to threatening stimuli. The right premotor cortex (PM) is mainly activated during freezing, whereas the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is involved in attentional orienting towards threat. The aim of the present study was to test the possibility to modulate attentional orienting and defensive responses to threatening stimuli by interfering with the activity of the rig...

Binocular rivalry and emotion: Implications for neural correlates of consciousness and emotional biases in conscious perception.

Studies of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) combining MEG/EEG with behavioral data have described two main time ranges relating to conscious perception: 130-320 (the visual awareness negativity; VAN) and 300-500 (P3a) ms after stimulus onset. At the same time, two event-related potential (ERP) peaks have shown an emotional modulation of endogenous attention: the early posterior negativity (EPN; peaking around 250 msec) and the late positive potential (LPP, peaking around 600 msec). Furthermor...

Near optimal encoding of numerosity in typical and dyscalculic development.

Dyscalculia is often associated with poor numerosity sensitivity. However, it is not known whether the perceptual systems of dyscalculics have implicit access to the sensory noise of numerosity judgements, and whether their perceptual systems take the noise levels into account in optimizing their perception. We tackled this question by measuring central tendency and serial dependence with a numberline task on dyscalculics and math-typical preadolescents. Numerosity thresholds were also measured with a separ...

Language and cognitive outcomes after childhood stroke: Theoretical implications for hemispheric specialization.

The purpose of this study was to investigate language and cognitive outcomes following severe childhood stroke, and the role of age at stroke according to lesion lateralization. We retrospectively included children consecutively admitted to a physical medicine and rehabilitation department between 1992 and 2015 following childhood stroke (age at stroke 1 month to15 years). Data collection included demographic and clinical information, results of cognitive assessments on the Wechsler Intelligence scales, det...


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