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PubMed Journals Articles About "Cell Signaling Technologies" - Page: 4 RSS

18:35 EDT 16th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Cell Signaling Technologies PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Cell Signaling Technologies articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Cell Signaling Technologies" PubMed Articles 76–100 of 30,000+

Metabolic signaling directs the reciprocal lineage decisions of αβ and γδ T cells.

The interaction between extrinsic factors and intrinsic signal strength governs thymocyte development, but the mechanisms linking them remain elusive. We report that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) couples microenvironmental cues with metabolic programs to orchestrate the reciprocal development of two fundamentally distinct T cell lineages, the αβ and γδ T cells. Developing thymocytes dynamically engage metabolic programs including glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, as well as ...


Lean on Me: Cell-Cell Interactions Release TGF-β for Local Consumption Only.

A new study combines detailed biochemical characterization with whole-animal genetics and computational transcriptome data mining to reveal how the LRRC33 milieu molecule imposes an exquisite level of spatial control on TGF-β signaling in the CNS.

Signaling and Function of Interleukin-2 in T Lymphocytes.

The discovery of interleukin-2 (IL-2) changed the molecular understanding of how the immune system is controlled. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine, and dissecting the signaling pathways that allow IL-2 to control the differentiation and homeostasis of both pro- and anti-inflammatory T cells is fundamental to determining the molecular details of immune regulation. The IL-2 receptor couples to JAK tyrosine kinases and activates the STAT5 transcription factors. However, IL-2 does much more than control transcrip...


B cell development is critically dependent on NFATc1 activity.

B cell development in bone marrow is a precisely regulated complex process. Through successive stages of differentiation, which are regulated by a multitude of signaling pathways and an array of lineage-specific transcription factors, the common lymphoid progenitors ultimately give rise to mature B cells. Similar to early thymocyte development in the thymus, early B cell development in bone marrow is critically dependent on IL-7 signaling. During this IL-7-dependent stage of differentiation, several transcr...

TGF-β signaling in cancer.

Signals from the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily mediate a broad spectrum of cellular processes and are deregulated in many diseases, including cancer. TGF-β signaling has dual roles in tumorigenesis. In the early phase of tumorigenesis, TGF-β has tumor suppressive functions, primarily through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, in the late stage of cancer, TGF-β acts as a driver of tumor progression and metastasis by increasing tumor cell invasiveness and migration and promoting...

Functional crosstalk among oxidative stress and O-GlcNAc signaling pathways: Abstract.

In metazoans, thousands of intracellular proteins are modified with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in response to a wide range of stimuli and stresses. In particular, a complex and evolutionarily conserved interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and oxidative stress has emerged in recent years. Here, we review the current literature on the connections between O-GlcNAc and oxidative stress, with a particular emphasis on major signaling pathways, such as KEAP1/NRF2, FOXO, NFκB, p53 and cell metabolism....

Class II MHC cytoplasmic domain-mediated signaling in B cells: A tail of two signals.

In addition to their role in antigen presentation, class II MHC molecules also transmit signals to B lymphocytes. Class II MHC-mediated signals initiate a range of events in B cells, including induction of cell surface proteins, initiation of cell-cycle progression/proliferation, activation of or protection from apoptosis, and antigen-dependent plasma cell differentiation. Although various transmembrane signaling proteins associate with class II MHC molecules, the class II MHC cytoplasmic domains are essent...

MeCP2 deficiency promotes cell reprogramming by stimulating IGF1/AKT/mTOR signaling and activating ribosomal protein-mediated cell cycle gene translation.

The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers a great opportunity in research and regenerative medicine. The current poor efficiency and incomplete mechanistic understanding of the reprogramming process hampers the clinical application of iPSCs. MeCP2 connects histone modification and DNA methylation, which are key changes of somatic cell reprogramming. However, the role of MeCP2 in cell reprogramming has not been examined. In this study, we found that MeCP2 deficiency enhanced reprogrammi...

Glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-Glucose activates migration and invasion in glioblastoma cells through modulation of the miR-7-5p/TFF3 signaling pathway.

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are characterized by the metabolic shift towards aerobic glycolysis, rapid proliferation and acquisition of the migratory and invasive phenotype aiding tumor angiogenesis. The glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) used for targeting glycolysis in GBMs is ineffective in inhibiting migration and invasion. In the present study we report that 2-DG treatment downregulates the tumor suppressive miR-7-5p in GBM cell lines in vitro. Overexpression of miR-7-5p significantly reduced migra...

Stem Cell Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Stem cell therapies have been proposed as a treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases, but the best stem cell source and therapeutic efficacy for neuroregeneration remain uncertain. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs), which can efficiently generate neural cells, could be good candidates but they pose ethical and practical issues. Not only difficult to find the good source of those cells but also they alway pose immunorejection problem since they may not be an autologous cells. Ev...

ROS Promotes Cancer Cell Survival through Calcium Signaling.

To avoid reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cell death, cancer cells increase their antioxidant defense system. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Takahashi et al. identify a novel, non-canonical oxidative stress defense mechanism involving TRPA1, a redox-sensitive Ca channel, and the upregulation of anti-apoptotic pathways to promote cancer cell survival.

Mutual Stabilization between TRIM9 Short Isoform and MKK6 Potentiates p38 Signaling to Synergistically Suppress Glioblastoma Progression.

p38 signaling is broadly involved in controlling inflammation and stress-induced cell death; however, the mechanisms controlling its activity have seldom been studied. Here, we report that TRIM9 short isoform (TRIM9s) potentiates p38 signaling by stabilizing MKK6. Mechanistic studies revealed that TRIM9s promotes the K63-linked ubiquitination of MKK6 at Lys82, thus inhibiting the degradative K48-linked ubiquitination of MKK6 at the same lysine. MKK6 could also stabilize TRIM9s by promoting the phosphorylati...

Detrimental Type I Interferon Signaling Dominates Protective AIM2 Inflammasome Responses during Francisella novicida Infection.

Interferons (IFNs) and inflammasomes are essential mediators of anti-microbial immunity. Type I IFN signaling drives activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in macrophages; however, the relative contribution of IFNs and inflammasome responses in host defense is less understood. We report intact AIM2 inflammasome responses in mice lacking type I IFN signaling during infection with F. novicida. Lack of type I IFN signaling conferred protection to F. novicida infection in contrast to the increased susceptibility...

A novel inhibitor targets both Wnt signaling and ATM/p53 in colorectal cancer.

For 2017, the estimated lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) was 1 in 22. Even though preventative colonoscopy screening and standard of care surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have decreased the death rate from CRC, new therapies are needed for metastatic CRC. Here we developed a novel small molecule, compound 2, that inhibited proliferation and viability of human CRC cells (HCT-116, DLD-1, SW480, and 10.1). Compound 2 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and EMT processes and potently incr...

Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filaments in Cell Biology.

Intermediate filaments (IFs) are one of the three major elements of the cytoskeleton. Their stability, intrinsic mechanical properties, and cell type-specific expression patterns distinguish them from actin and microtubules. By providing mechanical support, IFs protect cells from external forces and participate in cell adhesion and tissue integrity. IFs form an extensive and elaborate network that connects the cell cortex to intracellular organelles. They act as a molecular scaffold that controls intracellu...

Molecular advances in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a group of malignancies derived from skin-homing T cells. Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are the most common CTCL variants. In recent years, the genetic landscape of SS/MF has been characterized using genome-wide nextgeneration sequencing approaches. These studies have revealed that genes subjected to oncogenic mutations take part in cell cycle regulation, chromatin modification, Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription protein...

Myeloid p38α signaling promotes intestinal IGF-1 production and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.

The protein kinase p38α plays a key role in cell homeostasis, and p38α signaling in intestinal epithelial cells protects against colitis-induced tumorigenesis. However, little is known on the contribution of p38α signaling in intestinal stromal cells. Here, we show that myeloid cell-specific downregulation of p38α protects mice against inflammation-associated colon tumorigenesis. The reduced tumorigenesis correlates with impaired detection in the colon of crucial chemokines for immune cell recruitment. ...

α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate impairs pancreatic cancer cells by stimulating the p38 signaling pathway.

Multiple studies are currently targeting dysregulated cancer cell metabolism with distinct combinations of inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated in pancreatic cancer cells metformin, which blocks oxidative phosphorylation, in combination with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, which has been reported to inhibit the export of lactate from the cytosol. The combination of metformin with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate had a major inhibitory effect on the migration of 6606PDA cells. Monotherapy with α-cyano-4-hydroxyc...

The caveolar membrane system in endothelium: From cell signaling to vascular pathology.

Caveolae are 50- to 100-nm cholesterol and glycosphingolipid-rich flask-shaped invaginations commonly observed in many terminally differentiated cells. These organelles have been described in many cell types and are particularly abundant in endothelial cells, where they have been involved in the regulation of certain signaling pathways. Specific scaffolding proteins termed caveolins, along with the more recently discovered members of the cavin family, represent the major protein components during caveolae b...

Harnessing CXCL12 signaling to protect and preserve functional β-cell mass and for cell replacement in type 1 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex multifactorial disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and natural history of T1D has evolved significantly over the past two decades; we can efficiently predict high-risk individuals, early diagnose the disease and stage progression. Fortuitously, novel in vitro differentiation protocols for generating functional β-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells have been develo...

Centromeric signaling proteins boost G1 cyclin degradation and modulate cell size in budding yeast.

Cell size scales with ploidy in a great range of eukaryotes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using various orthogonal single-cell approaches, we show that cell size increases linearly with centromere (CEN) copy number in budding yeast. This effect is due to a G1 delay mediated by increased degradation of Cln3, the most upstream G1 cyclin acting at Start, and specific centromeric signaling proteins, namely Mad3 and Bub3. Mad3 binds both Cln3 and Cdc4, the adaptor component of the Skp1/Cul1/F-bo...

GTPases Rac1 and Ras Signaling from Endosomes.

The endocytic compartment is not only the functional continuity of the plasma membrane but consists of a diverse collection of intracellular heterogeneous complex structures that transport, amplify, sustain, and/or sort signaling molecules. Over the years, it has become evident that early, late, and recycling endosomes represent an interconnected vesicular-tubular network able to form signaling platforms that dynamically and efficiently translate extracellular signals into biological outcome. Cell activatio...

Perfluorooctanoic acid stimulates ovarian cancer cell migration, invasion via ERK/NF-κB/MMP-2/-9 pathway.

As widely used in consumer products, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has become a common environmental pollutant, which has been detected in human serum and associated with cancers. Our previous study showed that PFOA is a carcinogen that promotes endometrial cancer cell migration and invasion through activation of ERK/mTOR signaling. Here, we showed that PFOA (≥100 nM) treatment also stimulated A2780 ovarian cancer cell invasion and migration, which correlated with increased matrix metalloproteinases MMP...

Interleukin-6 secretion is limited by self-signaling in endosomes.

Cells producing cytokines often express the receptor for the same cytokine, which makes them prone to autocrine signaling. How cytokine release and signaling are regulated in the same cell is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that signaling by exogenous and self-synthesized inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) within endosomal compartments acts as a cellular brake that limits synthesis of IL-6. Our data show that IL-6 is internalized by dendritic cells and signals from endosomal compartmen...

Erbin suppresses KSR1-mediated RAS/RAF signaling and tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer.

Erbin belongs to the LAP (leucine-rich repeat and PDZ domain) family of scaffolding proteins that plays important roles in orchestrating cell signaling. Here we show that Erbin functions as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC). Analysis of Erbin expression in CRC patient specimens revealed that Erbin was downregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues. Knockdown of Erbin disrupted epithelial cell polarity and increased cell proliferation in 3D culture. In addition, silencing Erbin re...


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