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Health professionals have the responsibility of involving parents in decision-making regarding children's healthcare. This is to ensure that healthcare is customised to meet children's and families' needs and preferences. There is inadequate knowledge about health professionals' role in involving parents in these decisions in interprofessional practice in hospital settings. The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' construction of the phenomenon of parental involvement in decision-making ab...
There is increased attention for shared decision making (SDM) when deciding on radiotherapy for selected patients with Stage 0-2 breast cancer. This study aimed to explore patients' and health care professionals' experiences, decisional attributes and needs as input for the development of a patient decision aid to facilitate SDM.
Surgeons make complex, high-stakes decisions under time constraints and uncertainty, with significant effect on patient outcomes. This review describes the weaknesses of traditional clinical decision-support systems and proposes that artificial intelligence should be used to augment surgical decision-making.
When facing difficult decisions, people typically believe that "two heads are better than one". However, findings from previous studies are inconsistent regarding the advantages of decision-making in groups as compared to individual decision-making. We hypothesize that personality traits may modulate risk-taking behavior and brain activity changes during group decision-making. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) with a well-validated balloon analogue risk task (BART) paradigm to examine th...
Making end-of-life decisions in neonates involves ethically difficult and distressing dilemmas for healthcare providers. Insight into which factors complicate or facilitate this decision-making process could be a necessary first step in formulating recommendations to aid future practice.
Advances in medicine have seen changes in mortality in Western countries. Simultaneously, countries such as Australia, Canada, USA, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Germany have encouraged consumer-directed care and Advance Care Plan (ACP) completion, giving patients a voice despite incapacity. Adhering to ACPs relies on the decision-making of treating doctors, making hospital doctors key partners, and their perspectives on ACP adherence critical.
In this commentary, the author discusses two strengths and two weaknesses of "Better than Best (Interest Standard) in Pediatric Decision-Making," in which Lainie Friedman Ross critiques the best interest standard and proposes her own model of constrained parental autonomy (CPA) as a preferable replacement for both an intervention principle and a guidance principle in pediatric decision making. The CPA's strengths are that it detaches from the language and concept of "best" and that it better respects the fa...
Thanks to the advances in care, pregnancy is now attainable for the majority of young female CKD patients, although it is still a high-risk endeavor. Clinical decision-making in these cases is impacted by a myriad of factors, making (pre)pregnancy counseling a complex process. The complexities, further impacted by limited data and unknown risks regarding outcome, can cause discussions when deciding on the best care for a specific patient.
We investigated whether a task requiring concurrent perceptual decision-making and response control can be performed concurrently, whether evidence accumulation and response control are accomplished by the same neurons, and whether perceptual decision-making and countermanding can be unified computationally. Based on neural recordings in a prefrontal area of macaque monkeys, we present behavioral, neural, and computational results demonstrating that perceptual decision-making of varying difficulty can be co...
Discharge decision making for hospitalized older adults can be a complicated process involving functional assessments, capacity evaluation, and coordination of resources. Providers may feel pressured to recommend that an older adult with complex care needs be discharged to a skilled nursing facility rather than home, potentially contradicting the patient's wishes. This can lead to a professional and ethical dilemma for providers, who value patient autonomy and shared decision making. We describe a discharge...
To review the effect of patient decision aids for adults making treatment decisions regarding the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain.
Decisions about prenatal screening to assess the risk of genetic conditions such as Down syndrome are complex and should be well informed. Moreover, the number of available tests is increasing. Shared decision making (SDM) about testing could be facilitated by decision aids powered by mobile technology.
Clinical options for managing non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) vary. Each option has associated side-effects leading to difficulty in decision-making. This study aimed to assess the relationship between patient involvement in treatment decision-making and subsequent decision regret (DR), and quantify the impact of health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes on DR.
Maladaptive decision-making strategies could contribute to cannabis-related problems, as some individuals may neither select safe patterns of cannabis use, nor seek treatment.
Humans frequently perform tasks collaboratively in daily life. Collaborating with others may or may not result in higher task performance than if one were to complete the task alone (i.e., a collective benefit). A recent study on collective benefits in perceptual decision-making showed that dyad members with similar individual performances attain collective benefit. However, little is known about the physiological basis of these results. Here, we replicate this earlier work and also investigate the neurophy...
Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and access to optimal treatment achieves optimal cancer outcomes. However, CRC survival inequalities persist with a lower survival rate for older patients (≥65 years). Although the reasons for poorer cancer survival in older people are complex, evidence suggests that these patients are less likely to receive best practice care as indicated by access to multidisciplinary team (MDT) care. Three electronic databases were systematically searched to examine factors ...
Decision-making is a conserved evolutionary process enabling us to choose one option among several alternatives, and relies on reward and cognitive control systems. The Iowa Gambling Task allows the assessment of human decision-making under uncertainty by presenting four card decks with various cost-benefit probabilities. Participants seek to maximise their monetary gain by developing long-term optimal-choice strategies. Animal versions have been adapted with nutritional rewards, but interspecies data compa...
Religion and/or spirituality are important values for many parents of critically ill children; however, how religion and/or spirituality may influence which treatments parents accept or decline for their child, or how they respond to significant events during their child's illness treatment, remains unclear. To summarize the literature related to the influence of parents' religiosity or spirituality on decision making for their critically ill child. Integrative review, using the Whittemore and Knafl appro...
. There is a growing need for valid shared decision-making (SDM) measures. We aimed to determine whether the items of extant SDM observer-based coding schemes assess the 4 key elements of SDM. . Items of SDM coding schemes were extracted and categorized. Except for the 4 key elements of SDM (fostering choice awareness, informing about options, discussing patient preferences, and making a decision), (sub)categories were created inductively. Two researchers categorized items independently and in duplicate. . ...
Despite increasing attention to the importance of father involvement during pregnancy, the literature on fathers' roles in perinatal decision making is scant.
Binary decision making is a topic of great interest for many fields, including biomedical science, economics, management, politics, medicine, natural science and social science, and much effort has been spent for developing novel computational methods to address problems arising in the aforementioned fields. However, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of any prediction method for binary decision making, the choice of the most appropriate error measures is of paramount importance. Due to the variety of e...
Decisions about postacute care are increasingly important as the United States population ages, its use becomes increasingly common, and payment reforms target postacute care. However, little is known about how to improve these decisions.
Approaching real life decision making through Quasi Realistic Decision Making may increase the ecological validity of decision making experiments. This could help narrow the gap between laboratory settings and observations in real world contexts and thus allow for generalization of laboratory results to everyday life. A binary decision task with quasi realistic context and stimuli was created to investigate neural processing of certain and uncertain decision making, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imagi...