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PubMed Journals Articles About "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults With" - Page: 4 RSS

17:30 EST 22nd November 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults with" PubMed Articles 76–100 of 44,000+

Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: the earlier the better?

Impairments in neuro and social cognition are considered core features of schizophrenia (SCZ) since they affect patients' functioning and contribute to poor socio-occupational outcomes. Therefore, the improvement of cognitive performances has become a primary goal in the care of patients with SCZ, especially in the first phases of the disease, as early interventions may favour better long-term outcomes. Cognitive remediation (CR) is a behavioural training aimed at improving cognitive functions with the goal...


Mathematics anxiety and cognition: an integrated neural network model.

Many students suffer from anxiety when performing numerical calculations. Mathematics anxiety is a condition that has a negative effect on educational outcomes and future employment prospects. While there are a multitude of behavioral studies on mathematics anxiety, its underlying cognitive and neural mechanism remain unclear. This article provides a systematic review of cognitive studies that investigated mathematics anxiety. As there are no prior neural network models of mathematics anxiety, this article ...

The Efficacy of Modafinil as a Cognitive Enhancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Animal models and human studies have identified the potential of modafinil as a cognitive enhancing agent, independent of its effects on promoting wakefulness in sleep-deprived samples. Given that single-dose applications of other putative memory enhancers (eg, D-cycloserine, yohimbine, and methylene blue) have shown success in enhancing clinical outcomes for anxiety-related disorders, we conducted a meta-analytic review examining the potential for single-dose effects for modafinil on cognitive functioning ...


Ingestion, egestion and post-exposure effects of polystyrene microspheres on marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

Microplastics (MPs) are of environmental concern due to their bioavailability and potential impacts on a wide range of marine biota. In this study, we investigated the ingestion, bioaccumulation and egestion of fluorescent polystyrene (PS) micospheres (10 μm) in both larvae and adults of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), with or without food supply. The post-exposure effects of non-fluorescent PS (10 μm) on the survival, growth and reproduction of medaka larvae were also explored. Results showed tha...

Common and distinct neural correlates of fear extinction and cognitive reappraisal: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies.

Cognitive reappraisal and fear extinction learning represent two different approaches to emotion regulation. While their respective neural correlates have been widely studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few direct comparisons between these processes have been conducted. We conducted a meta-analysis of fMRI studies of reappraisal and fear extinction, with the aim of examining both commonalities and differences in their neural correlates. We also conducted independent analyses that focu...

"With CO-OP I'm the boss" - experiences of the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance approach as reported by young adults with cerebral palsy or spina bifida.

Restrictions to activity and participation in persons with cerebral palsy or spina bifida are often due to both motor and executive dysfunction. Hence methods focusing solely on motor issues are not enough to enhance participation. The Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance Approach is a performance-based approach offering clients opportunities to create their own strategies to learn skills. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe experiences of the Cognitive Orientation to...

Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive decline: a systematic review.

In a growing elderly population, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Age Related Cognitive Decline (ARCD) are increasing in prevalence worldwide. In the search for food compounds able to ameliorate this condition, it has been postulated that n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 LCPUFA), also known as omega-3, consumption could have a positive effect in the prevention or therapy of these cognitive declines. This current systematic review studies the relationship between n-3 LCPUFAs and cognitive s...

Allergy to food in adults with allergic respiratory diseases: prevalence and clinical manifestations.

Food allergy is considered a typical problem in the pediatric population, however, cases occur in adults more frequently.

Stress adaptation in older adults with and without cognitive impairment: an fMRI pattern-based similarity analysis.

The capacity to adapt to environmental stressors is essential for older adults' health and well-being. It is unclear how cognitive impairment may disrupt the capacity. Here we examined the relationship between self-perceptions of stress and the neurobiological response to a laboratory model of stress adaptation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a group at high risk for dementia.

Cognitive reserve impacts on disability and cognitive deficits in acute stroke.

Although post-stroke cognitive deficit can significantly limit patient independence and social re-integration, clinical routine predictors for this condition are lacking. 'Cognitive reserve' limits the detrimental effects of slowly developing neurodegeneration. We aimed to determine whether comparable effects also exist in acute stroke. Using 'years of education' as a proxy, we investigated whether cognitive reserve beneficially influences cognitive performance and disability after stroke, whilst controllin...

Childhood maltreatment, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and alcohol craving and dependence in alcohol-dependent males: Direct and indirect pathways.

Childhood maltreatment (CM) and cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERSs) may be important in alcohol craving and dependence in alcohol-dependent individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate direct effects of CM on the subscales of alcohol craving and alcohol dependence and its indirect effects via CERSs in individuals with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence.

Cognitive control processes associated with successful gait performance in dual-task walking in healthy young adults.

Growing evidence suggests that the reliance on cognitive control processes during normal walking increases as the locomotor task gets more complex and challenging. The aims of the present study were to explore the (negative) effects of smartphone gaming on gait performance in healthy young adults, and to identify cognitive resources that might help to maintain high gait performance during dual-task walking. Gait speed and gait variability during walking at a self-selected comfortable speed were assessed in ...

Strategies Used by Adults With Diagnosed Diabetes to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs, 2017-2018.

In 2018, 10.1% of adults aged 18 and over had diagnosed diabetes (1). The majority of those with diabetes take medication for this condition (2). Compared with those without diabetes, adults with diagnosed diabetes experience higher out-of-pocket costs for prescription medications (3) and cost-related, medication nonadherence behaviors (4). Adults have used several strategies to reduce the costs of prescription drugs, including not taking medication as prescribed and asking their doctor for a lower-cost med...

The Prevalence of Food Allergy in Young Israeli Adults.

Information regarding the prevalence of food allergy (FA) among adults is limited due to their inaccessibility for thorough epidemiological evaluations.

Cognitive Effects of Adding Caloric Restriction to Aerobic Exercise Training in Older Adults with Obesity.

This study examined the short- and long-term effects of adding caloric restriction to 5 months of aerobic exercise training on executive function in sedentary older adults with obesity.

Neural Correlates of Causal Confounding.

As scientists, we are keenly aware that if putative causes perfectly covary, the independent influence of neither can be discerned-a "no confounding" constraint on inference, fundamental to philosophical and statistical perspectives on causation. Intriguingly, a substantial behavioral literature suggests that naïve human reasoners, adults and children, are tacitly sensitive to causal confounding. Here, a combination of fMRI and cognitive computational modeling was used to investigate neural substrates medi...

Effects of Cognitive Load on Pure-Tone Audiometry Thresholds in Younger and Older Adults.

Cognitive load (CL) impairs listeners' ability to comprehend sentences, recognize words, and identify speech sounds. Recent findings suggest that this effect originates in a disruption of low-level perception of acoustic details. Here, we attempted to quantify such a disruption by measuring the effect of CL (a two-back task) on pure-tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds. We also asked whether the effect of CL on PTA was greater in older adults, on account of their reduced ability to divide cognitive resources be...

Dissociating refreshing and elaboration and their impacts on memory.

Maintenance of information in working memory (WM) is assumed to rely on refreshing and elaboration, but clear mechanistic descriptions of these cognitive processes are lacking, and it is unclear whether they are simply two labels for the same process. This fMRI study investigated the extent to which refreshing, elaboration, and repeating of items in WM are distinct neural processes with dissociable behavioral outcomes in WM and long-term memory (LTM). Multivariate pattern analyses of fMRI data revealed diff...

Testing the theoretical similarities between food and water insecurity: Buffering hypothesis and effects on mental wellbeing.

Theoretical analyses by anthropologists suggest that food and water insecurity exhibit multiple conceptual parallels, hold similar consequences for wellbeing, and lead to analogous coping strategies aimed at mitigating those consequences. However, these deductions largely originate from studies conducted separately on either food or water insecurity. Thus, these similarities may not bear out when examined in populations facing high rates of both. In particular, some researchers argue that food and water ins...

The silent epidemic of chronic pain in older adults.

Chronic pain is highly prevalent among older adults where it is associated with significant suffering, disability, social isolation, and greater costs and burden to health care systems. Pharmaceutical treatment of chronic pain in older adults is usually only partially effective and is often limited by side effects including urinary retention, constipation, sedation, cognitive impairment, and increased risk of falls. Since older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials testing treatments for chronic pa...

Predictive value of olfactory impairment for cognitive decline among cognitively normal adults.

Dementia affects over 47 million people worldwide. Olfactory impairment (OI) is a well-established predictive marker of conversion to dementia among those with mild cognitive impairment. This systematic review aims to describe the predictive value of OI for future cognitive decline among cognitively normal adults.

Cognitive Performance in Adults Aged 60 and Over: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2014.

Objective-This report describes cognitive performance in the U.S. noninstitutionalized population of older adults. The association of sociodemographic factors and self-reported cognitive and health status with low cognitive performance is also investigated. Methods-During 2011-2014, the cognitive performance of participants aged 60 and over was assessed during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Cognitive assessment was based on scores from established objective cognitive tests (w...

How cognitive reserve influences older adults' cognitive state, executive functions and language comprehension: A structural equation model.

Cognitive reserve has been defined as the individuals' ability to tolerate age-related and neurodegenerative changes in the brain without developing clinical symptoms or signs of disease. Formal education, occupational attainment, and knowledge of other languages have been assessed as the most relevant factors determining cognitive reserve. The main objective of this study was to develop a structural equation model that reflects the direct influence of cognitive reserve on old adults' general cognitive stat...

Cookie or clementine? Psychophysiological stress reactivity and recovery after eating healthy and unhealthy comfort foods.

Many people eat unhealthy foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar when feeling stressed, yet little is known about whether this unhealthy comfort eating actually comforts. Additionally, prior research has not tested whether healthy comfort eating of fruits and vegetables might also alleviate stress, or whether comfort eating during the stress anticipation phase versus immediately after a stressful event is more beneficial for stress relief. The present experiment tested whether unhealthy and healthy ...

Preserved network functional connectivity underlies cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis.

Cognitive reserve is one's mental resilience or resistance to the effects of structural brain damage. Reserve effects are well established in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and Alzheimer's disease, but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether preservation of functional connectivity explains cognitive reserve. Seventy-four PwMS and 29 HCs underwent neuropsychological assessment and 3 T MRI. Structural damage measures included gray matter (GM) atrophy and network ...


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