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Showing "artemether lumefantrine Malaria" PubMed Articles 76–100 of 429

Transmission traits of malaria parasites within the mosquito: Genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity, and consequences for control.

Evaluating the risk of emergence and transmission of vector-borne diseases requires knowledge of the genetic and environmental contributions to pathogen transmission traits. Compared to the significant effort devoted to understanding the biology of malaria transmission from vertebrate hosts to mosquito vectors, the strategies that malaria parasites have evolved to maximize transmission from vectors to vertebrate hosts have been largely overlooked. While determinants of infection success within the mosquito ...

Oral administration of vitamin D and importance in prevention of cerebral malaria.

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a serious and fatal malaria-associated syndrome caused by the development of an overwhelming proinflammatory response. Vitamin D (Vit.D; cholecalciferol) has regulatory functions associated with both innate and adaptive immune responses. Prevention is better than cure, in this experiment, we evaluated prophylactic oral Vit.D as a means of preventing CM presentation before infection of C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) by modulating the host proinflammatory response. Mi...

Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults living in Gabon (Central Africa)-a pilot study.

Submicroscopic malaria infections contribute to malaria transmission. Describing the extent of the parasite reservoir is of importance. In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the frequency of subpatent malaria infections is rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of submicroscopic infections in people living with HIV in Gabon and its relationship with cotrimoxazole (CTX) use.

An assessment of false positive rates for malaria rapid diagnostic tests caused by non-Plasmodium infectious agents and immunological factors.

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can produce false positive (FP) results in patients with human African trypanosomiasis and rheumatoid factor (RF), but specificity against other infectious agents and immunological factors is largely unknown. Low diagnostic specificity caused by cross-reactivity may lead to over-estimates of the number of malaria cases and over-use of antimalarial drugs, at the cost of not diagnosing and treating the true underlying condition.

Clinical implications of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Malawi.

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in Malawi, however, the implications of these infections for the burden of malaria illness are unknown. Whether asymptomatic infections eventually progress to malaria illness, persist without causing symptoms, or clear spontaneously remains undetermined. We identified asymptomatic infections and evaluated the associations between persistent asymptomatic infections and malaria illness.

cGMP Signalling: Malarial Guanylyl Cyclase Leads the Way.

When ingested by a mosquito, the malaria parasite relies on an unusual form of gliding motility to escape from the rapidly deteriorating blood meal. A new study on an atypical malaria guanylyl cyclase reveals the importance of spatiotemporal regulation of cGMP production in this process.

Implications of current therapeutic restrictions for primaquine and tafenoquine in the radical cure of vivax malaria.

The 8-aminoquinoline antimalarials, the only drugs which prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malaria (radical cure), cause dose-dependent oxidant haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients with

The use of stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Since SBET is a controversial strategy for malaria self-treatment, this study aims to systematically review primary studies on its use amongst travellers.

Misdiagnosis of Babesiosis as Malaria, Equatorial Guinea, 2014.

We report a case of babesiosis, caused by Babesia microti, in a missionary who worked in Equatorial Guinea but also visited rural Spain. The initial diagnosis, based on clinical features and microscopy, was malaria. The patient's recovery was delayed until she received appropriate treatment for babesiosis.

Donor-derived multiorgan transmission of mixed P. malariae and P. ovale infection: Impact of globalization on post-transplant infections.

A 57-year-old man was admitted with fever and thrombocytopenia one month after renal transplantation. He had never received a blood transfusion or travelled outside Spain. A peripheral blood smear revealed Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale parasites, diagnosis confirmed later by malaria PCR. The donor, from Equatorial Guinea, had negative thick and thin blood smears and rapid malaria antigen test prior to organ donation. Peripheral blood malaria PCR was not performed during donor screening. The second renal ...

'I could not join because I had to work for pay.': A qualitative evaluation of falciparum malaria pro-active case detection in three rural Cambodian villages.

Pro-active case detection (Pro-ACD), in the form of voluntary screening and treatment (VSAT) following community mobilisation about 'asymptomatic malaria', is currently being evaluated as a tool for Plasmodium falciparum elimination in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia.

Putting evolution in elimination: Winning our ongoing battle with evolving malaria mosquitoes and parasites.

Since 2000, the world has made significant progress in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, and several countries in Africa, South America and South-East Asia are working hard to eliminate the disease. These elimination efforts continue to rely heavily on antimalarial drugs and insecticide-based interventions, which remain the cornerstones of malaria treatment and prevention. However, resistance has emerged against nearly every antimalarial drug and insecticide that is available. In this review we disc...

Optimization of incubation conditions of Plasmodium falciparum antibody multiplex assays to measure IgG, IgG, IgM and IgE using standard and customized reference pools for sero-epidemiological and vaccine studies.

The quantitative suspension array technology (qSAT) is a useful platform for malaria immune marker discovery. However, a major challenge for large sero-epidemiological and malaria vaccine studies is the comparability across laboratories, which requires the access to standardized control reagents for assay optimization, to monitor performance and improve reproducibility. Here, the Plasmodium falciparum antibody reactivities of the newly available WHO reference reagent for anti-malaria human plasma (10/198) a...

Investigation of pregnancy-associated malaria by microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and PCR in Bandundu, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The study was conducted to investigate malaria prevalence among a group of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) who received intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP).

Mechanisms of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have substantially reduced worldwide malaria burden and deaths. But malaria parasites have become resistant to artemisinins. Prior studies suggested two different molecular pathways of artemisinin-resistance. Here we unify recent findings into a single model, where elevation of a lipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) results in vesicle expansion that increases the engagement with the unfolded protein response (UPR). Vesicle expansion (rather than incre...

Whole blood transcriptome changes following controlled human malaria infection in malaria pre-exposed volunteers correlate with parasite prepatent period.

Malaria continues to be one of mankind's most devastating diseases despite the many and varied efforts to combat it. Indispensable for malaria elimination and eventual eradication is the development of effective vaccines. Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is an invaluable tool for vaccine efficacy assessment and investigation of early immunological and molecular responses against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Here, we investigated gene expression changes following CHMI using RNA-Seq. Peripheral b...

Evaluation of automated loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) for routine malaria detection in blood samples of German travelers - A cross-sectional study.

We assessed a commercial loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) platform for its reliability as a screening tool for malaria parasite detection.

An upstream open reading frame (uORF) signals for cellular localization of the virulence factor implicated in pregnancy associated malaria.

Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, alternates expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multi-copy gene family named var. In var2csa, the var gene implicated in pregnancy-associated malaria, translational repression is regulated by a unique upstream open reading frame (uORF) found only in its 5' UTR. Here, we report that this translated uORF significantly alters both transcription and posttranslational protein trafficking. The parasite can alter...

Prevalence of G6PD deficiency and associated haematological parameters in children from Botswana.

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly seen in malaria endemic areas as it is known to confer a selective advantage against malaria. Recently, we reported a high proportion of asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana, that calls for intervention with primaquine to achieve radical cure of vivax malaria. Considering that individuals with this enzyme deficiency are at risk of haemolysis following primaquine treatment, assessment of the population for the relative frequenc...

Blood parasites shape extreme MHC diversity in a migratory passerine.

Pathogens are one of the main forces driving the evolution and maintenance of the highly polymorphic genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC proteins are crucial in pathogen recognition, it is still poorly understood how pathogen-mediated selection promotes and maintains MHC diversity, and especially so in host species with highly duplicated MHC genes. Sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) have highly duplicated MHC genes and using data from high-throughput MHC gen...

Capacitive malaria aptasensor using Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase as target antigen in undiluted human serum.

A capacitive aptasensor for detecting the malaria biomarker, Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase (PfGDH), directly in human serum samples developed. A thiolated ssDNA aptamer (NG3) that binds specifically to PfGDH antigen with high affinity (K= 79 nM) was used to develop the aptasensor. The aptasensor produced capacitance response at an optimized frequency of 2 Hz in a non-Faradaic electrochemical impedance based signal transduction platform. The aptasensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 10...

Malaria burden and treatment targets in Kachin Special Region II, Myanmar from 2008 to 2016: A retrospective analysis.

Although drug-based treatment is the primary intervention for malaria control and elimination, optimal use of targeted treatments remains unclear. From 2008 to 2016, three targeted programs on treatment were undertaken in Kachin Special Region II (KR2), Myanmar. Program I (2008-2011) treated all confirmed, clinical and suspected cases; program II (2012-2013) treated confirmed and clinical cases; and program III (2014-2016) targeted confirmed cases only. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the three p...

A diagnostic performance evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy for malaria diagnosis using nested polymerase chain reaction as reference standard in a tertiary hospital in Jos, Nigeria.

Rapid diagnostic tests are frequently used in healthcare settings across Nigeria for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is the commonest form of malaria in the country. In this study, the performance of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was compared with expert microscopy using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference standard in a tertiary hospital in Jos, Nigeria.

Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya.

The global increase in vector borne diseases has been linked to climate change. Seasonal vegetation changes are known to influence disease vector population. However, the relationship is more theoretical than quantitatively defined. There is a growing demand for understanding and prediction of climate sensitive vector borne disease risks especially in regions where meteorological data are lacking. This study aimed at analyzing and quantitatively assessing the seasonal and year-to-year association between cl...

The Etiology of Placental Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in African Women.

Plasmodium falciparum parasites causing placental malaria (PM) express the VAR2CSA type of the clonally variant antigen family PfEMP1. This enables evasion of pre-existing immunity and results in placental accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IEs). We present data on seasonal variation in levels of VAR2CSA-specific IgG and IgG specific for a PM-unrelated PfEMP1 protein among Ghanaian women at first antenatal visit. Our results indicate that PM does not require recent exposure to infected mosquitoes, in co...

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