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Showing "artemether lumefantrine Malaria" PubMed Articles 76–100 of 433

Females of HbAS genotype have reduced concentration of the malaria protective deoxyhemoglobin S than males.

The quantity of the intra-erythrocytic deoxyhemoglobin S (Hb S) affects the level of protection against malaria and also the sickling phenomenon. This study reports on significantly lower concentration of Hb S in females than males. Data came from 350 children, aged 12-47 months who participated in a phase 2b malaria vaccine trial. Hemoglobinopathy and G6PD deficiency typing was necessary to ascertain equal representation of these malaria protective traits across the vaccine cohorts. Hemoglobin types (HbAA,...

Contribution of Plasmodium immunomics: potential impact for serological testing and surveillance of malaria.

Plasmodium vivax and P. knowlesi account together for a considerable share of the global burden of malaria, along with P. falciparum. However, inaccurate diagnosis and undetectable asymptomatic/submicroscopic malaria infections remain very challenging. Blood-stage antigens involved in either invasion of red blood cells or sequestration/cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes have been immunomics-characterized, and are vital for the detection of malaria incidence. Areas covered: We review the recent advanc...

Plasmodium ovale wallikeri in Western Lowland Gorillas and Humans, Central African Republic.

Human malaria parasites have rarely been reported from free-ranging great apes. Our study confirms the presence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium ovale wallikeri in western lowland gorillas and humans in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic, and discusses implications for malaria epidemiology.

Experimental cerebral malaria is associated with profound loss of both glycan and protein components of the endothelial glycocalyx.

Vascular pathology is central to malaria pathogenesis and associated with severity of disease. We have previously documented shedding of the cerebral endothelial glycocalyx in experimental malaria and hypothesized that this action is implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM). Quantification and characterization of the intraluminal vascular glycocalyx are technically challenging. Here, we used ferritin labeling, computerized image analysis, and biochemical characterization by using in vivo biot...

Knowledge of malaria and long-lasting insecticidal net use practices in two departments of colombia.

To determine the knowledge about malaria and use practice of insecticide-treated mosquito nets in the departments of Antioquia and Chocó in Colombia, 2013.

Chloroquine as weekly chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment to prevent malaria in pregnancy in Malawi: a randomised controlled trial.

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance threatens efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy, and alternative regimens need to be identified. With the return of chloroquine efficacy in southern Africa, we postulated that chloroquine either as an intermittent therapy or as weekly chemoprophylaxis would be more efficacious than intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in pregnancy and associated maternal and newborn adverse outcomes.

Recent advances on T-cell exhaustion in malaria infection.

T-cell exhaustion reportedly leads to dysfunctional immune responses of antigen-specific T cells. Investigations have revealed that T cells expand into functionally defective phenotypes with poor recall/memory abilities to parasitic antigens. The exploitation of co-inhibitory pathways represent a highly viable area of translational research that has very well been utilized against certain cancerous conditions. Malaria, at times, evolve into a sustained chronic state where T cells express several co-inhibito...

Diagnostic performance of conventional RDT and ultra-sensitive RDT for malaria diagnosis in febrile outpatients in Tanzania.

A novel ultra-sensitive malaria RDT (us-RDT) has been developed for improved active P.falciparum case detection. The utility of this us-RDT in clinical diagnosis and fever management has not been evaluated to date.

The association of malaria morbidity with linear growth, hemoglobin, iron status, and development in young Malawian children: a prospective cohort study.

Although poor complementary feeding is associated with poor child growth, nutrition interventions only have modest impact on child growth, due to high burden of infections. We aimed to assess the association of malaria with linear growth, hemoglobin, iron status, and development in children aged 6-18 months in a setting of high malaria and undernutrition prevalence.

Genetic polymorphisms with erythrocyte traits in malaria endemic areas of Mali.

African populations are characterized by high degree of genetic diversity. This high genetic diversity could result from the natural selection pressure. Several studies have described an association between some genetic diversities and difference of susceptibility to infectious diseases like malaria. It seems therefore important to consider genetic diversity impact when interpreting results of clinical trials in malaria endemic areas. This study aimed to determine the genetic polymorphism with erythrocyte t...

Oral administration of vitamin D and importance in prevention of cerebral malaria.

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a serious and fatal malaria-associated syndrome caused by the development of an overwhelming proinflammatory response. Vitamin D (Vit.D; cholecalciferol) has regulatory functions associated with both innate and adaptive immune responses. Prevention is better than cure, in this experiment, we evaluated prophylactic oral Vit.D as a means of preventing CM presentation before infection of C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) by modulating the host proinflammatory response. Mi...

Self-medication with non-prescribed pharmaceutical agents in an area of low malaria transmission in northern Tanzania: a community-based survey.

Self-treatment with antimicrobials is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the prevalence of this practice where malaria transmission intensity is low, and little is known about the prevalence of self-treatment with other medications such as antihypertensives and antihyperglycemics.

Malaria in children under-five: A comparison of risk factors in lakeshore and highland areas, Zomba district, Malawi.

In Malawi, children under the age of five living in different geographical areas may experience different malaria risk factors. We compare the risk factors of malaria experienced by children under the age of five from Zomba district, who reside in lakeshore and highland areas.

The Malaria-Protective Human Glycophorin Structural Variant DUP4 Shows Somatic Mosaicism and Association with Hemoglobin Levels.

Glycophorin A and glycophorin B are red blood cell surface proteins and are both receptors for the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which is the principal cause of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. DUP4 is a complex structural genomic variant that carries extra copies of a glycophorin A-glycophorin B fusion gene and has a dramatic effect on malaria risk by reducing the risk of severe malaria by up to 40%. Using fiber-FISH and Illumina sequencing, we validate the structural arrangement of the glycophorin locus i...

Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria: case series and systematic review.

Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria, and its incidence in Southeast Asia is increasing. Factors associated with death are not clearly defined.

cGMP Signalling: Malarial Guanylyl Cyclase Leads the Way.

When ingested by a mosquito, the malaria parasite relies on an unusual form of gliding motility to escape from the rapidly deteriorating blood meal. A new study on an atypical malaria guanylyl cyclase reveals the importance of spatiotemporal regulation of cGMP production in this process.

A probabilistic model of pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine combination in mice.

Malaria remains one the world's most deadly infectious diseases, with almost half a million deaths and over 150 million clinical cases each year. An effective vaccine would contribute enormously to malaria control and will almost certainly be required for eventual eradication of the disease. However, the leading malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, shows only 30-50% efficacy under field conditions, making it less cost-effective than long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets. Other subunit malaria vaccine candi...

Tafenoquine versus Primaquine to Prevent Relapse of Plasmodium vivax Malaria.

Tafenoquine, a single-dose therapy for Plasmodium vivax malaria, has been associated with relapse prevention through the clearance of P. vivax parasitemia and hypnozoites, termed "radical cure."

Barriers to malaria prevention in US-based travelers visiting friends and relatives abroad: A qualitative study of West African immigrant travelers.

Over half of malaria cases reported in the United States occur among people traveling to visit friends and relatives (VFRs), predominantly to West Africa. Few studies have queried VFR travelers directly on barriers to seeking pre-travel care. We aim to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of VFRs traveling to malaria-endemic countries from the United States. With these findings, we aim to design interventions to encourage preventive behaviors before and during travel.

The use of stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Since SBET is a controversial strategy for malaria self-treatment, this study aims to systematically review primary studies on its use amongst travellers.

Misdiagnosis of Babesiosis as Malaria, Equatorial Guinea, 2014.

We report a case of babesiosis, caused by Babesia microti, in a missionary who worked in Equatorial Guinea but also visited rural Spain. The initial diagnosis, based on clinical features and microscopy, was malaria. The patient's recovery was delayed until she received appropriate treatment for babesiosis.

Chloroquine analogs as antimalarial candidates with potent in vitro and in vivo activity.

In spite of recent efforts to eradicate malaria in the world, this parasitic disease is still considered a major public health problem, with a total of 216 million cases of malaria and 445,000 deaths in 2016. Artemisinin-based combination therapies remain effective in most parts of the world, but recent cases of resistance in Southeast Asia have urged for novel approaches to treat malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In this work, we present chloroquine analogs that exhibited high activity against sensi...

Reinvestigating the status of malaria parasite (Plasmodium sp.) in Indian non-human primates.

Many human parasites and pathogens have closely related counterparts among non-human primates. For example, non-human primates harbour several species of malaria causing parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Studies suggest that for a better understanding of the origin and evolution of human malaria parasites it is important to know the diversity and evolutionary relationships of these parasites in non-human primates. Much work has been undertaken on malaria parasites in wild great Apes of Africa as well as wi...

Epidemiological analysis of malaria in Shandong Province in 2017.

To understand the malaria epidemiological characteristics of Shandong Province in 2017, so as to provide the evidences for formulating targeted prevention and control strategy and measures.

Exploring insecticide resistance mechanisms in three major malaria vectors from Bangui in Central African Republic.

Malaria remains the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the Central African Republic. However, the main malaria vectors remain poorly characterised, preventing the design of suitable control strategies. Here, we characterised the patterns and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in three important vectors from Bangui. Mosquitoes were collected indoors, using electrical aspirators in July 2016 in two neighborhoods at Bangui. WHO bioassays performed, using F An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), revealed a high...

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