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Showing "artemether lumefantrine Malaria" PubMed Articles 76–100 of 455

The role of the Deki Reader™ in malaria diagnosis, treatment and reporting: findings from an Africare pilot project in Nigeria.

The Deki Reader is a diagnostic device used with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and linked to an online database for real-time uploads of patient information and results. This is in contrast to visual interpretation of malaria RDTs recorded on the District Health Information System (DHIS). This paper compares records for use of the Deki Reader with DHIS records of visual interpretation of RDTs.

Genome-wide and expression-profiling analyses suggest the main cytochrome P450 genes related to pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles sinensis (Diptera Culicidae).

Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors. However, pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis is threatening malaria control. Cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification is an important pyrethroid resistance mechanism that has been unexplored in An. sinensis. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of An. sinensis P450 gene superfamily with special attention to their role in pyrethroid resistance using bioinformatics and molecular approaches.

Transmission traits of malaria parasites within the mosquito: Genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity, and consequences for control.

Evaluating the risk of emergence and transmission of vector-borne diseases requires knowledge of the genetic and environmental contributions to pathogen transmission traits. Compared to the significant effort devoted to understanding the biology of malaria transmission from vertebrate hosts to mosquito vectors, the strategies that malaria parasites have evolved to maximize transmission from vectors to vertebrate hosts have been largely overlooked. While determinants of infection success within the mosquito ...

Multiplex serology for impact evaluation of bed net distribution on burden of lymphatic filariasis and four species of human malaria in northern Mozambique.

Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a primary control strategy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its impact on the three other main species of human malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which share the same vectors in many co-endemic areas, is not as well characterized. The recent development of multiplex antibody detection provides the opportunity for simultaneous evaluation of the impact of control measures on the burden of multiple diseases.

Gene drives to fight malaria: current state and future directions.

Self-propagating gene drive technologies have a number of desirable characteristics that warrant their development for the control of insect pest and vector populations, such as the malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Theoretically easy to deploy and self-sustaining, these tools may be used to generate cost-effective interventions that benefit society without obvious bias related to wealth, age or education. Their species-specific design offers the potential to reduce environmental risks and aim to be compatib...

Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults living in Gabon (Central Africa)-a pilot study.

Submicroscopic malaria infections contribute to malaria transmission. Describing the extent of the parasite reservoir is of importance. In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the frequency of subpatent malaria infections is rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of submicroscopic infections in people living with HIV in Gabon and its relationship with cotrimoxazole (CTX) use.

An assessment of false positive rates for malaria rapid diagnostic tests caused by non-Plasmodium infectious agents and immunological factors.

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can produce false positive (FP) results in patients with human African trypanosomiasis and rheumatoid factor (RF), but specificity against other infectious agents and immunological factors is largely unknown. Low diagnostic specificity caused by cross-reactivity may lead to over-estimates of the number of malaria cases and over-use of antimalarial drugs, at the cost of not diagnosing and treating the true underlying condition.

Clinical implications of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Malawi.

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in Malawi, however, the implications of these infections for the burden of malaria illness are unknown. Whether asymptomatic infections eventually progress to malaria illness, persist without causing symptoms, or clear spontaneously remains undetermined. We identified asymptomatic infections and evaluated the associations between persistent asymptomatic infections and malaria illness.

Implications of current therapeutic restrictions for primaquine and tafenoquine in the radical cure of vivax malaria.

The 8-aminoquinoline antimalarials, the only drugs which prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malaria (radical cure), cause dose-dependent oxidant haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients with

Promising approach to reducing Malaria transmission by ivermectin: Sporontocidal effect against Plasmodium vivax in the South American vectors Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi.

The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America.

Misdiagnosis of Babesiosis as Malaria, Equatorial Guinea, 2014.

We report a case of babesiosis, caused by Babesia microti, in a missionary who worked in Equatorial Guinea but also visited rural Spain. The initial diagnosis, based on clinical features and microscopy, was malaria. The patient's recovery was delayed until she received appropriate treatment for babesiosis.

Donor-derived multiorgan transmission of mixed P. malariae and P. ovale infection: Impact of globalization on post-transplant infections.

A 57-year-old man was admitted with fever and thrombocytopenia one month after renal transplantation. He had never received a blood transfusion or travelled outside Spain. A peripheral blood smear revealed Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale parasites, diagnosis confirmed later by malaria PCR. The donor, from Equatorial Guinea, had negative thick and thin blood smears and rapid malaria antigen test prior to organ donation. Peripheral blood malaria PCR was not performed during donor screening. The second renal ...

'I could not join because I had to work for pay.': A qualitative evaluation of falciparum malaria pro-active case detection in three rural Cambodian villages.

Pro-active case detection (Pro-ACD), in the form of voluntary screening and treatment (VSAT) following community mobilisation about 'asymptomatic malaria', is currently being evaluated as a tool for Plasmodium falciparum elimination in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia.

Putting evolution in elimination: Winning our ongoing battle with evolving malaria mosquitoes and parasites.

Since 2000, the world has made significant progress in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, and several countries in Africa, South America and South-East Asia are working hard to eliminate the disease. These elimination efforts continue to rely heavily on antimalarial drugs and insecticide-based interventions, which remain the cornerstones of malaria treatment and prevention. However, resistance has emerged against nearly every antimalarial drug and insecticide that is available. In this review we disc...

Optimization of incubation conditions of Plasmodium falciparum antibody multiplex assays to measure IgG, IgG, IgM and IgE using standard and customized reference pools for sero-epidemiological and vaccine studies.

The quantitative suspension array technology (qSAT) is a useful platform for malaria immune marker discovery. However, a major challenge for large sero-epidemiological and malaria vaccine studies is the comparability across laboratories, which requires the access to standardized control reagents for assay optimization, to monitor performance and improve reproducibility. Here, the Plasmodium falciparum antibody reactivities of the newly available WHO reference reagent for anti-malaria human plasma (10/198) a...

Investigation of pregnancy-associated malaria by microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and PCR in Bandundu, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The study was conducted to investigate malaria prevalence among a group of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) who received intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP).

Mechanisms of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have substantially reduced worldwide malaria burden and deaths. But malaria parasites have become resistant to artemisinins. Prior studies suggested two different molecular pathways of artemisinin-resistance. Here we unify recent findings into a single model, where elevation of a lipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) results in vesicle expansion that increases the engagement with the unfolded protein response (UPR). Vesicle expansion (rather than incre...

A New Link between γδ T Cells and Myeloid Cells in Malaria?

In malaria, the immune responses leading to protective immunity versus immunopathology are unclear. Mamedov et al. (2018) identify a subset of clonally expanded γδ T cells in late-stage infection that produce M-CSF and may interact with myeloid cells to control recrudescent infection.

Schistosoma mansoni infection suppresses the growth of Plasmodium yoelii parasites in the liver and reduces gametocyte infectivity to mosquitoes.

Malaria and schistosomiasis are major parasitic diseases causing morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Epidemiological surveys have revealed coinfection rates of up to 30% among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the impact of coinfection of these two parasites on disease epidemiology and pathology, we carried out coinfection studies using Plasmodium yoelii and Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Malaria parasite growth in the liver following sporozoite inoculation is significantly inhibited in mice ...

Whole blood transcriptome changes following controlled human malaria infection in malaria pre-exposed volunteers correlate with parasite prepatent period.

Malaria continues to be one of mankind's most devastating diseases despite the many and varied efforts to combat it. Indispensable for malaria elimination and eventual eradication is the development of effective vaccines. Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is an invaluable tool for vaccine efficacy assessment and investigation of early immunological and molecular responses against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Here, we investigated gene expression changes following CHMI using RNA-Seq. Peripheral b...

The Ebola-effect in Guinea 2014-15: Tangled trends of malaria care in children under-five.

The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa was disruptive for the general health services in the affected countries. This study assessed the impact of the outbreak on the reported number and management of malaria in children under-five in rural Guinea.

Evaluation of automated loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) for routine malaria detection in blood samples of German travelers - A cross-sectional study.

We assessed a commercial loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) platform for its reliability as a screening tool for malaria parasite detection.

An upstream open reading frame (uORF) signals for cellular localization of the virulence factor implicated in pregnancy associated malaria.

Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, alternates expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multi-copy gene family named var. In var2csa, the var gene implicated in pregnancy-associated malaria, translational repression is regulated by a unique upstream open reading frame (uORF) found only in its 5' UTR. Here, we report that this translated uORF significantly alters both transcription and posttranslational protein trafficking. The parasite can alter...

Rapid and sensitive multiplex single-tube nested PCR for the identification of five human Plasmodium species.

Malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium in humans. Microscopy is currently used for pathogen detection, requiring considerable training and technical expertise as the parasites are often difficult to differentiate morphologically. Rapid diagnostic tests are as reliable as microscopy and offer faster diagnoses but possess lower detection limits and are incapable of distinguishing among the parasitic species. To improve global health efforts towards malaria control, a rapid, sensitive, species-specifi...

Prevalence of G6PD deficiency and associated haematological parameters in children from Botswana.

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly seen in malaria endemic areas as it is known to confer a selective advantage against malaria. Recently, we reported a high proportion of asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana, that calls for intervention with primaquine to achieve radical cure of vivax malaria. Considering that individuals with this enzyme deficiency are at risk of haemolysis following primaquine treatment, assessment of the population for the relative frequenc...

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