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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disease process with several different phenotypes. Recent data has shown that CRS phenotypes maintain distinct nasal microbiota that may predict surgical outcomes. Nasal microbiota and structured histopathologic reporting have the potential to further differentiate subtypes and provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of CRS.
The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore the role and mechanism of transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP.
Inconsistencies in the nomenclature of structures of the frontal sinus have impeded the development of a validated "reference standard" classification system that surgeons can reliably agree upon. The International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification (IFAC) system was developed as a consensus document, based on expert opinion, attempting to address this issue. The purposes of this study are to: establish the reliability of the IFAC as a tool for classifying cells in the frontal recess among an internationa...
When a standard dose of intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) fails to control symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR), a double dose of INCS is optional. This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of double-dose INCS.
Quality improvement (QI) in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is garnering increasing attention. Defining frameworks and metrics to assess the quality of key components in CRS management could assist in reducing unwarranted practice variation and increase high-quality care.
Although intranasal steroids and anti-cysteinyl-leukotriene-receptor antagonists are efficacious in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), combinations of these agents have not unequivocally been demonstrated to be superior to the individual drugs. We aimed to compare the efficacy and potential mechanisms of budesonide nasal spray (BD), oral montelukast (MNT), and combination therapy comprising a half-dose of budesonide plus montelukast (hBD+MNT) in SAR patients.
While essential to the normal differentiation of ciliated airway epithelial cells, upregulated Wnt signaling in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has been proposed to result in abnormal epithelial morphology and dysfunctional mucociliary clearance. The mechanism of epithelial Wnt signaling dysregulation in CRSwNP is unknown, and importantly cellular sources of Wnt ligands in CRSwNP have not yet been investigated.
Understanding the variation in costs of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is critical to defining value. Current published costs of ESS have not identified potential sources of variation. Our objective was to analyze ESS costs to identify sources of variance that could guide value-improving decisions.
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are advanced artificial intelligence algorithms well suited to image classification tasks with variable features. These have been used to great effect in various real-world applications including handwriting recognition, face detection, image search, and fraud prevention. We sought to retrain a robust CNN with coronal computed tomography (CT) images to classify osteomeatal complex (OMC) occlusion and assess the performance of this technology with rhinologic data.
Patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) have been shown to have greater disease severity and poorer treatment outcomes after sinus surgery. Although the inflammatory pattern of ECRS is essential to diagnosing this subtype, there is currently no consensus for diagnosis. Our aim in this study was to determine whether high tissue eosinophilia (HTE), measured as eosinophils per high-power field (eos/HPF), could be used to define ECRS based on likelihood of recurrence.
The coagulation pathway has been previously implicated in the etiopathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) through analysis of individual proteins within the cascade. The purpose of this study was to: (1) apply a large-scale proteomic approach to confirm these previous findings; and (2) correlate the protein aberrations between tissue and exosomes to establish exosomal proteomics as a method to probe the pathophysiology of CRSwNP.
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is associated with substantial productivity losses. Prior cross-sectional study has identified risk factors and symptom subdomains contributing to baseline productivity loss. This study evaluates correlations between posttreatment changes in symptom subdomain and productivity loss.
Intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) is the most efficacious medicine for treating chronic rhinitis. A decongestant and INCS combination (INCS-D) is considered for nasal congestion that is not improved by INCS. This study aimed to investigate the effects of INCS-D on chronic rhinitis.
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is still the only causal treatment for allergic diseases. However, conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) administration schedules are time-consuming and patient nonadherence is a major barrier to achieving a satisfactory therapeutic effect. Our study aimed to analyze the causes leading to discontinuation of SCIT and to determine risk factors associated with nonadherence in respiratory allergies.
Bacteria, particularly in the biofilm state, may be implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and enhance antibiotic resistance. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous immunomodulator with antimicrobial activity and a short half-life, complicating achievement of therapeutic concentrations. We hypothesized that a novel microparticle-based delivery platform, which allows for adjustable release of NO, could exhibit potent antibacterial effects.
The interleukin (IL)-10 expression in B cells plays an important role in immune tolerance. The regulation of IL-10 expression in B cells is not fully understood yet. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is increased in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. This study tests a hypothesis that TNF enhances histone deacetylase (HDAC)11 expression to inhibit the expression of IL-10 in B cells of AR patients.
Prolonged length of stay (pLOS), disease-related complications, and 30-day readmissions are important quality metrics under the Affordable Care Act. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of patient-level and hospital-level factors on these outcomes for patients admitted for transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic eosinophilic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, asthma, and respiratory sensitivity to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In addition to sensitivity to aspirin and NSAIDs, the majority of patients with AERD have been reported to have respiratory intolerance associated with the consumption of alcohol.
Although nasal congestion is among the most common symptoms in subjects suffering from nasal diseases, relatively few data on normal airflow resistance are available for reference, especially in healthy Chinese subjects. The aim of present study was therefore to objectively measure the normal airflow resistance by rhinomanometry, and calculate mean and standard reference intervals in a cohort of healthy Chinese subjects.
Acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS) is a rare, aggressive infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. In this study we examined factors that affect survival in AIFS, and whether immune-stimulating therapies (IST) improve survival.
Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) has been proposed as a method to reduce blood loss during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Impaired sinonasal visualization due to mucosal bleeding may be burdensome in cases of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with high-grade inflammatory disease, suggesting a role for TIVA in that disease subgroup.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated bacterium from patients with surgically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Understanding the immune responses to S aureus biofilms will provide insights into how the host response may be manipulated by therapeutic agents to improve the chances of successfully preventing and treating these infections. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory immune response in a rabbit model of S aureus biofilm-related sinusitis by analyzing the levels of som...