PubMed Journals Articles About "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults With" - Page: 5 RSS

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Showing "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults with" PubMed Articles 101–125 of 44,000+

Long-Lasting Effects of Repeated Ketamine Administration in Adult and Adolescent Rats.

Initiation of ketamine use often occurs in adolescence, yet little is known about long-term consequences when use begins in this developmental period. The current experiments were designed to examine the effects of repeated exposure to ketamine in adolescence on behavior in adulthood. We examined locomotor activity, as well as cognitive function, in animals that received repeated administration of ketamine. Groups of adolescent and adult male rats were treated with ketamine (25 mg/kg) once daily for 10 da...

Examining the Associations of Smoking Behavior and Obesity Among Older Adults in China: Should We Consider Food Consumption Behaviors?

This research investigates the associations between smoking frequency and body mass index (BMI) among older adults in China with and without the inclusion of food consumption behaviors. Applying three waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (2009, 2012, and 2014), with 12,312 observations from 4,104 participants, gender-stratified panel ordered logistic regressions were performed. Food consumption included intake frequency and types of fruits, vegetables, staple food, cooking oil, and me...

Neurophysiological, linguistic, and cognitive predictors of children's ability to perceive speech in noise.

Hearing in noisy environments is a complicated task that engages attention, memory, linguistic knowledge, and precise auditory-neurophysiological processing of sound. Accumulating evidence in school-aged children and adults suggests these mechanisms vary with the task's demands. For instance, co-located speech and noise demands a large cognitive load and recruits working memory, while spatially separating speech and noise diminishes this load and draws on alternative skills. Past research has focused on one...

Effects of Simulated Horseback Riding on Balance, Postural Sway, and Quality of Life in Older Adults With Parkinson's Disease.

The purpose of this study was to determine changes in balance, postural sway, and quality of life after 6 wk of simulated horseback riding in adults diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Eight older adults completed two 60-min riding sessions weekly for 6 wk. Variables of balance, postural sway, and quality of life were measured 6 wks before and within 1 wk before and after the intervention. Berg Balance Scale scores decreased from baseline to preintervention (48.36 ± 5.97 vs. 45.86 ± 6.42, p = .050) and in...

Community-Based Cognitive Social Capital and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults in Urban China: The Moderating Role of Family Social Capital.

The present study examined the moderating role of family social capital in the relationship between community-based cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults in urban China. Cross-sectional data were derived from a community survey conducted in Suzhou, China, in late 2015. Data from 441 respondents were included in the final analysis. Multiple group analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The latent construct of community-based cognitive social capital was base...

Developing and Piloting a Tool to Identify Food Insecurity in Older Adults.

The literature shows that food insecurity (FI) can negatively affect the trajectory of many chronic illnesses. FI can be acutely severe for older adults, but screening for FI is not regularly performed in the hospital setting. Our goal was to develop a tool to screen for FI upon hospital discharge to identify patients who may require community food resources. This is the first attempt to build such a tool for implementation in our health system.

Effect of Reduced Audibility on Mini-Mental State Examination Scores.

The interaction of audition and cognition has been of interest to researchers and clinicians, especially as the prevalence of hearing loss and cognitive decline increases with advancing age. Cognitive screening tests are commonly used to assess cognitive status in individuals reporting changes in memory or function or to monitor cognitive status over time. These assessments are administered verbally, so performance may be adversely affected by hearing loss. Previous research on the impact of reduced audibil...

Olfactory function is associated with cognitive performance: results from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study.

Studies in older adults or those with cognitive impairment have shown associations between cognitive and olfactory performance, but there are few population-based studies especially in younger adults. We therefore cross-sectionally analyzed this association using data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study.

Repeated stress leads to enhanced cortisol stress response in child social anxiety disorder but this effect can be prevented with CBT.

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with continual social stress in everyday life. Two physiological components of stress are the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as captured by cortisol reactivity, and the autonomous nervous system, as captured by salivary alpha amylase (sAA) reactivity. In children with SAD, initial evidence points to dysregulated physiological stress reactivity for both systems. Furthermore, hardly any studies have assessed stress reactivity twice, including exploring possibl...

Age-Related Hearing Loss and Tinnitus, Dementia Risk, and Auditory Amplification Outcomes.

Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), as the third leading cause of chronic disability in older adults, has been shown to be associated with predisposing cognitive impairment and dementia. Tinnitus is also a chronic auditory disorder demonstrating a growth rate with increasing age. Recent evidence stands for the link between bothersome tinnitus and impairments in various aspects of cognitive function. Both ARHL and age-related tinnitus affect mental health and contribute to developing anxiety, stress, and depres...

Does traditional asian vegetables (ulam) consumption correlate with brain activity using fMRI? A study among aging adults from low-income households.

Working memory and cognitive flexibility are supported by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Aging adults from low-income households are individuals with a high risk of cognitive decline who incorporate ulam in their daily diet.

Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Active Videogames on Cognitive Flexibility, Reaction Time, and Perceived Exertion in Older Adults.

The aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of aerobic exercise (AE), active videogames (AVG), and AE+AVG on cognitive flexibility, choice reaction time (CRT), and postexercise rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in a sample composed of 49 older adults, 11 men and 38 women (age  67.7 ± 4.7 years). An incomplete intrasubject factorial design was followed. Participants were randomly divided into three experimental groups, and each one performed two of three different sessions (A, B, or C). In ...

Acute and long-term effects of haloperidol on surgery-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive deficits in aged rats.

Neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the cognitive symptoms of postoperative delirium (POD) and its subsequent long-term cognitive impairment. Haloperidol (HAL), a dopamine receptor antagonist, is widely used to treat POD, whereas the effects of HAL on postoperative neuroinflammation and related cognitive deficits have been underdetermined.

Enhancing neural efficiency of cognitive processing speed via training and neurostimulation: An fNIRS and TMS study.

Speed of Processing (SoP) represents a fundamental limiting step in cognitive performance which may underlie General Intelligence. The measure of SoP is particularly sensitive to aging, neurological or cognitive diseases, and has become a benchmark for diagnosis, cognitive remediation, and enhancement. Neural efficiency of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) is proposed to account for individual differences in SoP. However, the mechanisms by which DLPFC efficiency is shaped by training and whether it...

The Modulation of Neural Noise Underlies the Effectiveness of Methylphenidate Treatment in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Various lines of research suggest that the stability of neural processes is low in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Considering overarching neural principles, this lack of stability relates to increased levels of neural noise. However, no study has directly examined neural noise in ADHD. Likewise, it is unknown whether the modulation of neural noise reflects a mechanistic link as to why methylphenidate (MPH) is effective in treating impulsivity in ADHD.

Reviewing working memory training gains in healthy older adults: A meta-analytic review of transfer for cognitive outcomes.

The objective of this meta-analytic review was to systematically assess the effects of working memory training on healthy older adults. We identified 552 entries, of which 27 experiments met our inclusion criteria. The final database included 1130 participants. Near- and far-transfer effects were analysed with measures of short-term memory, working memory, and reasoning. Small significant and long-lasting transfer gains were observed in working memory tasks. Effects on reasoning was very small and only marg...

Food bolus-forming ability predicts incidence of aspiration pneumonia in nursing home older adults: a prospective observational study.

Food boluses in the pharynx without enough bolus formation sometimes cause aspiration among older adults; however, the relationship between food bolus-forming ability and incidence of aspiration pneumonia is unclear.

Facets of openness to experience are associated with cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation across both active and passive stress exposures.

Research suggests the personality trait of Openness to Experience is associated with cardiovascular stress processes. It is unknown if the underlying facets of Openness are associated with cardiovascular responsivity, and whether adaptation is evident across active and passive stress. The objective of this study was to determine if the facets of Openness are related to cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation across active and passive stress exposures. Personality measures and continuous cardiovascular data...

Cancer-Related Cognitive Impairment: Retrospective Analyses of a Multidimensional, Psychoeducation-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Intervention.

Managing cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a vital component of optimal cancer survivorship care. Results from several small studies indicate growing support for the use of cognitive rehabilitation and training strategies.

Exercise Maintenance in Older Adults 1 Year After Completion of a Supervised Training Intervention.

Barriers and facilitators of exercise maintenance and residual effects of exercise training intervention on physical and cognitive function after the cessation of training are inadequately described in older adults.

Strategies Used by Adults Aged 65 and Over to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs, 2016-2017.

In 2017, 86% of U.S. adults aged 65 and over reported being prescribed medication in the past 12 months (1). Most adults aged 65 and over have prescription drug coverage through either Medicare Part D or some source such as private health insurance, Medicaid, or Veterans Administration coverage (2). However, previous data indicate that some may still use strategies to reduce prescription drug costs, including not taking their medication as prescribed or asking their doctor for a lower-cost medication (3). T...

Effects of macular xanthophyll supplementation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cognitive performance.

Oxidative and inflammatory processes play a major role in stress-induced neural atrophy. There is a wide body of literature linking oxidative and inflammatory stress with reductions in neurotrophic factors, stress resilience, and cognitive function. Based on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity, we investigated the effect of the dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, along with the zeaxanthin isomer meso-zeaxanthin (collectively the "macular xanthophylls" [MXans]) on systemic brain-derived n...

Neural correlates of cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients: Reduced brain electrical activity during the execution of a cognitive control task.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a generalized chronic pain syndrome of unknown aetiology. Although FM patients frequently complain of cognitive dysfunction, this is one of the least studied symptoms. Research on brain activity associated with the perceived cognitive impairment is particularly scarce. To address this gap, we recorded the brain electrical activity in participants during a cognitive control task.

Sweet cognition: The differential effects of glucose consumption on attentional food bias in individuals of lean and obese status.

In general, glucose consumption improves cognitive performance; however, it is unknown whether glucose specifically enhances attentional food bias, and how this process may vary by BMI status. We hypothesized that glucose consumption would increase attentional food bias among individuals of obese BMI status more so than among individuals of lean BMI status. Participants (N = 35) completed the n-back, a working memory task modified to assess attentional food bias (ATT-Food), under fasting and glucose cha...

Safety Assessment of Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions to Novel Food Proteins.

Current international guidelines for the risk assessment of biotechnology-derived foods date back to 2003. We present new strategies and directions for assessing immune adverse reactions to novel food proteins. Understanding genetic factors involved in food allergy and the role of the gastrointestinal tract will streamline risk assessment strategies.

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