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Available meta-analyses point to a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. The possible mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Here, we overview the studies aimed at identifying the factors contributing to the comorbidity between ADHD and obesity, including genetic factors, fetal programming, executive dysfunctions, psychosocial stress, factors directly related to energy balance, and sleep patterns alterations. The bulk of current research h...
A population-based longitudinal sample of 489 twin pairs was assessed at six time points over ten years to examine the measurement invariance and stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the developmental relations between inattention (IN), hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI), and multiple aspects of functional impairment. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and functional impairment were obtained in preschool and after the completion of kindergarten, first, second, fourth, a...
Impaired decision making in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been reported in several studies. Although methylphenidate (MPH) is known to ameliorate impaired decision making in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has not yet been examined in patients with BPD. We therefore assessed the efficacy of a single dose of MPH on cognitive functions and decision making in patients with BPD. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. The stud...
The objective was to compare long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) on executive functions (EF) and delay aversion (DAv) in ADHD. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at three moments (Naive, Post-1, Post-2). ADHD participants who showed deficits in the naive evaluation (n = 26) were randomized to receive either MPH (n = 13; Mage = 11 ± 1, MIQ 96 ± 8) or ATX (n = 13; Mage = 10 ± 1...
School dysfunction is observed in youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the factors moderating their school dysfunction have not been well explored. This study investigated school functions in youths with ASD in Taiwan, stratified by personal characteristics including demographics, ASD subtypes, intelligence profiles, and the presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We recruited 160 youths (aged 6-18 years, 87.5% boys) with a clinical diagnosis of ASD and 160 age and gender-mat...
The objective of this study was to assess the factor structure and clinical correlates of a 61-item version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a self-report retrospective measure of childhood problems, experiences, and behavior used in ADHD assessment. Given the currently mostly widely used form of the WURS was derived via a criterion-keyed approach, the study aimed to use latent variable modeling of the 61-item WURS to potentially identify more and more homogeneous set of items reflecting current conc...
Discriminative utility of performance measures of inhibitory control was examined in preschool children with and without ADHD to determine whether performance measures added to diagnostic prediction and to prediction of informant-rated day-to-day executive function.
Despite many studies reporting a variety of alterations in brain networks in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alterations in hemispheric anatomical networks are still unclear. In this study, we investigated topology alterations in hemispheric white matter in patients with ADHD and the relationship between these alterations and clinical features of the illness. Weighted hemispheric brain anatomical networks were first constructed for each of 40 right-handed patients with ADHD an...
To examine the 12-month prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of ADHD in a collective of adult psychiatric patients admitted to an open general ward in a psychiatric hospital in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) over a period of one year (n = 166).
To examine theeffects on the brain of 2-month treatment withamethylphenidate extended-release formulation (OROS-MPH) using [Tc-] TRODAT-1SPECT in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In addition, to assess whether risk alleles (homozygosity for 10-repeat allele at the DAT1 gene were associated with alterations in striatal DAT availability.
Recently, use of alternative tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and hookah (water-pipe tobacco), has increased among adolescents. It is unknown whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with initiation of alternative tobacco product use.
Evaluate the efficacy, duration of effect, and tolerability of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) extended-release versus placebo and immediate-release MAS (MAS IR) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a negative effect on the resolution of incontinence; however, there are few studies which investigated the risk factors of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in patients with ADHD.
Mindfulness training is a promising treatment approach in adult ADHD. However, there has not yet been a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness to an active control condition. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a mindfulness training program (MAP) compared to structured psychoeducation (PE).
A recent meta-analysis identified optimal items for assessing sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) as distinct from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), and a preliminary study with teacher ratings of children in the United States found strong support for the convergent and discriminant validity of 15 SCT items. The current study evaluated whether the same 15 SCT items demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity from ADHD-IN in a large, community-based sample of children in Spain,...
Book Review: Teenagers with ADD, ADHD and executive function deficits: A guide for parents and professionals Zeigler Dendy Chris A. ( 2017 ). Teenagers with ADD, ADHD and executive function deficits: A guide for parents and professionals ( 3rd ed .). Toronto, ON : Woodbine House via University of Toronto Press Guidance Centre . 359 pp . US$26.95 . ISBN: 978-1-60613-281-4.
Methylphenidate (MPH) has been shown to modulate the amplitude of the no-go P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP; Øgrim, Aasen, & Brunner, 2016). Using group independent component analysis, the no-go P3 from a cued go/no-go task has been separated into two sub-components (Brunner et al., 2013). This study investigated whether sub-components of the no-go P3 could be identified in children with ADHD, and how MPH modulates their amplitudes. ERPs were registered twice (on/off MPH) in 57 children wi...
To identify risk factors for adverse driving outcomes and unsafe driving among adults with and without ADHD in a Dutch sample.
This review aims to analyze the relationships between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD), particularly regarding the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in the development of these disorders. Studies that examined at least two of these disorders were obtained from multiple databases, following the procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration initiative. Of the 279 documents obtained, nine were retained for in-depth...
To determine whether comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis (including subtype) predicts response to cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety in children and to examine change in ADHD symptoms after treatment of primary anxiety.
To examine the levels of agreement between the reports of 452 children and their mothers on children's experiences of bullying involvement at school and investigate the factors influencing the levels of agreement in children with ADHD.
An association between vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been proposed by several researchers in recent years; however, the investigations have led to inconsistent results. The present study was conducted to summarize the published observational data on the relation between vitamin D status and the likelihood of ADHD. Online databases, including PubMed, the ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus, were checked up to June 2017 for relevant observational studies. A rando...
Previous research has revealed decreased bone mineral density (BMD) among children and adolescents who receive methylphenidate (MP) treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These findings have major clinical implications given that the prevalence of medication-treated ADHD is on the rise worldwide. We decided to investigate the clinical effect of MP exposure on the incidence of stress fractures, for which a low BMD is a risk factor.
Despite distinct diagnostic criteria, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share cognitive and emotion processing deficits that complicate diagnoses. The goal of this study was to use an emotional saccade task to characterize executive functioning and emotion processing in adult ADHD and BD. Participants (21 control, 20 ADHD, 20 BD) performed an interleaved pro/antisaccade task (look toward vs. look away from a visual target, respectively) in which the sex of emotional f...
The American Academy of Pediatrics published attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) guidelines, but significant variability exists in care. This exploratory study aimed to understand barriers to compliance with primary care office contacts for ADHD medication management. The study was conducted at a single academic medical center via retrospective chart review between 6/1/15 and 5/31/16 in combination with telephone interviews. Participants included 306 children 6-12 years old with an ADHD-related...