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PubMed Journals Articles About "Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal" - Page: 5 RSS

04:27 EDT 20th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Tumor microenvironment confers mTOR inhibitor resistance invasive intestinal" PubMed Articles 101–125 of 21,000+

Reversal of docetaxel resistance in prostate cancer by Notch signaling inhibition.

Acquired docetaxel (Doc) resistance in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) remains an ongoing clinical challenge, resulting in failed chemotherapy and tumor recurrence. However, the mechanism of Doc-resistance development in prostate cancer cells is still unclear. Here, we observed a subpopulation of prostate cancer cells, in both Doc-resistant cell lines and the tumors of patients with HRPC, which show stem cell markers and greater tumorigenic potential. Those stem-like prostate cancer cells show hig...


Effect of DS-2969b, a novel GyrB inhibitor, on rat and monkey intestinal microbiota.

DS-2969b, a novel GyrB inhibitor, transiently and reversibly altered the counts of limited intestinal microbiota at around 10 μg/g of faecal levels in rats and monkeys. Considering the high activity of DS-2969b against Clostridium difficile, 10 μg/g of faecal levels would be sufficient for clearing C. difficile from the intestine.

Prolyl hydroxylase 2: a promising target to inhibit hypoxia-induced cellular metabolism in cancer cells.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) shifts the metabolism of glucose from highly efficient oxidative phosphorylation to less efficient glycolysis. Pyruvic acid thus accumulated is oxidized to lactic acid which is pumped out in the tumor microenvironment. Protons generated from the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and upon hydrolysis of ATP further enhance the acidity in the tumor microenvironment. The resultant pH in the tumor microenvironment activates an endoplasmic reticulum protein: sterol regulatory ...


Implications of the Eighth Edition of the TNM Proposal: Invasive vs. Total Tumor Size for the T Descriptor in Pathologic Stage I-IIA Lung Adenocarcinoma.

The eighth edition of the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging system included the proposal that the T descriptor be determined according to the invasive component, excluding lepidic component, for nonmucinous lung adenocarcinomas. We sought to conduct a clinicopathologic comparative analysis of the newly proposed classification using invasive size versus total tumor size.

Long-Term Culture of Intestinal Organoids.

The in vitro long-term expansion of primary intestinal epithelial cells has been hampered by the inability to maintain an immature stem cell population. Recent technical advances have led to the development of a novel in vitro culture system that can sustain intestinal stem cells (ISCs) using growth factors that mimic the intestinal microenvironment in combination with a three-dimensional (3D) culture. The resulting intestinal organoids display a crypt-villus architecture that recapitulates the native intes...

Angiogenic role of miR-20a in breast cancer.

Angiogenesis is a key process for tumor progression and a target for treatment. However, the regulation of breast cancer angiogenesis and its relevance for clinical resistance to antiangiogenic drugs is still incompletely understood. Recent developments on the contribution of microRNA to tumor angiogenesis and on the oncogenic effects of miR-17-92, a miRNA cluster, point to their potential role on breast cancer angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to establish the contribution of miR-20a, a member of miR-...

Coaxial extrusion bioprinted shell-core hydrogel microfibers mimic glioma microenvironment and enhance the drug resistance of cancer cells.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor. The current treatment is mainly surgical resection combined with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and other comprehensive treatment methods. However, the treatment effect is unsatisfactory, the resistance of cancer cells to alkylating agent is the major reason for the recurrence of GBM. It is necessary to develop an ideal in vitro model to investigate the drug resistance of glioma cells. In this study, shell-glioma stem cell GSC...

Normalizing Tumor Microenvironment Based on Photosynthetic Abiotic/Biotic Nanoparticles.

Tumor hypoxia has attained the status of a core hallmark of cancer that globally affected the entire tumor phenotype. Reversing tumor hypoxia might offer alternative therapeutic opportunities for current anticancer therapies. In this research, a Photosynthetic Leaf-inspired Abiotic/biotic Nano-Thylakoid (PLANT) system was designed by fusing thylakoid membrane with synthetic nanoparticles for efficient O2 generation in vivo. Under 660 nm laser irradiation, PLANT system exhibited intracellular O2 generation a...

Targeting mTOR by CZ415 Inhibits Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.

mTOR is an important therapeutic target for human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current study tested the anti-HNSCC cell activity by a mTOR kinase inhibitor CZ415.

Genetic deficiency of NOD2 confers resistance to invasive aspergillosis.

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a severe infection that can occur in severely immunocompromised patients. Efficient immune recognition of Aspergillus is crucial to protect against infection, and previous studies suggested a role for NOD2 in this process. However, thorough investigation of the impact of NOD2 on susceptibility to aspergillosis is lacking. Common genetic variations in NOD2 has been associated with Crohn's disease and here we investigated the influence of these  genetic variations on the anti-...

Cancer cell plasticity: Impact on tumor progression and therapy response.

Most tumors exhibit intra-tumor heterogeneity, which is associated with disease progression and an impaired response to therapy. Cancer cell plasticity has been proposed as being an important mechanism that, along with genetic and epigenetic alterations, promotes cancer cell diversity and contributes to intra-tumor heterogeneity. Plasticity endows cancer cells with the capacity to shift dynamically between a differentiated state, with limited tumorigenic potential, and an undifferentiated or cancer stem-lik...

Rab5a suppresses autophagy to promote drug resistance in cancer cells.

Cancers are huge problems that need to be investigated thoroughly. Rab5a plays an important part in the regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking. However, its role in cancer and autophagy has not been fully determined. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between Rab5a expression and patients' prognosis and then explored the effect of Rab5a knockdown on different cell lines using western blotting and fluorescence. Our results showed that up-regulated Rab5a positively correlated with the progno...

Encapsulation of verapamil and doxorubicin by MPEG-PLA to reverse drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

Ovarian cancer is usually treated with transurethral resection or systemic chemotherapy in clinic. However, the development of drug resistance in ovarian cancer is frequently observed in ovarian cancer patients, leading to failure of tumor inhibition and recurrence. In this study, we aimed to efficiently reverse the drug resistance and enhance the anticancer effects by co-delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and multi-drugs resistant proteins inhibitor in ovarian cancer treatment.

Carbapenems and alternative beta-lactams for the treatment of infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: what impact on intestinal colonization resistance?

The on-going pandemic of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) is responsible for a global rise in carbapenem consumption that may hasten the dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Hence, carbapenem sparing through the use of alternative beta-lactams is increasingly considered as potential option in patients with ESBLE infections. Still, at the individual level, this strategy implies an in-depth understanding of how carbapenems and their alternativ...

Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway reverses sorafenib-derived chemo-resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Long-term sorafenib treatment triggers resistance to chemotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In order to investigate the mechanisms of sorafenib resistance in HCC, the aim of the present study was to develop a resistant human liver cell line via long-term exposure to sorafenib. The cytotoxicity cell counting kit-8 assay was used to evaluate drug sensitivity. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to examine the molecular mechanisms u...

Characterization of the immune microenvironment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: Implications for development of immunotherapy.

Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) is a uniformly fatal CNS tumor diagnosed in 300 American children per year. Radiation is the only effective treatment and extends overall survival to a median of 11 months. Due to its location in the brainstem, DIPG tumors cannot be surgically resected. Immunotherapy has the ability to target tumor cells specifically, however, little is known about the tumor microenvironment in DIPGs. We sought to characterize infiltrating immune cells and immunosuppressive factor exp...

Local synthesis of immunosuppressive glucocorticoids in the intestinal epithelium regulates anti-viral immune responses.

The nuclear receptor Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP) is a transcriptional target and inhibitor of Liver Receptor Homolog 1 (LRH-1), the transcriptional regulator of intestinal glucocorticoid (GC) synthesis. The role of SHP in the regulation of intestinal GC synthesis and its impact on T cell-mediated anti-viral immune responses in the intestinal mucosa are currently not understood. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection promoted intestinal GC synthesis, which was enhanced in SHP-deficient mice....

mTOR Complex 1 Signaling Regulates the Generation and Function of Central and Effector Foxp3 Regulatory T Cells.

The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a critical integrator of signals from the immune microenvironment capable of regulating T cell activation, differentiation, and function. The precise role of mTOR in the control of regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation and function is complex. Pharmacologic inhibition and genetic deletion of mTOR promotes the generation of Tregs even under conditions that would normally promote generation of effector T cells. Alternatively, mTOR activity...

Basal-like breast cancer engages tumor-supportive macrophages via secreted factors induced by extracellular S100A4.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) may influence both cancer progression and therapeutic response. In breast cancer (BC), particularly in the aggressive triple-negative/basal-like subgroup, patient outcome is strongly associated with the tumor's inflammatory profile. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most abundant immune cells in the TME, shown to be linked to poor prognosis and therapeutic resistance. In this study we investigated the effect of the metastasis- and inflammation-associated micr...

CCL15 recruits suppressive monocytes to facilitate immune escape and disease progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Chemokines play a key role in orchestrating the recruitment and positioning of myeloid cells within tumor microenvironment. However, the tropism regulation and functions of these cells in HCC are not completely understood. Herein, by scrutinizing the expression of all chemokines in HCC cell lines and tissues, we found that CCL15 was the most abundantly expressed chemokine in human HCC. Further analyses showed that CCL15 expression was regulated by genetic, epigenetic and microenvironmental factors, and nega...

Epistatic control of intrinsic resistance by virulence genes in Listeria.

Elucidating the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and virulence is key to understanding the evolution and population dynamics of resistant pathogens. Here, we show that the susceptibility of the gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes to the antibiotic fosfomycin is a complex trait involving interactions between resistance and virulence genes and the environment. We found that a FosX enzyme encoded in the listerial core genome confers intrinsic fosfomycin resistance to both pathogenic an...

The GSK3 Signaling Axis Regulates Adaptive Glutamine Metabolism in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Altered metabolism is a hallmark of cancer growth, forming the conceptual basis for development of metabolic therapies as cancer treatments. We performed in vivo metabolic profiling and molecular analysis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to identify metabolic nodes for therapeutic targeting. Lung SCCs adapt to chronic mTOR inhibition and suppression of glycolysis through the GSK3α/β signaling pathway, which upregulates glutaminolysis. Phospho-GSK3α/β protein levels are predictive of response to si...

Niclosamide ethanolamine improves kidney injury in db/db mice.

Early diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is characterized by renal hypertrophy and albuminuria. The mTOR signal pathway is closely related to DKD. This study was performed to determine the renal protection of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (NEN) which was identified as mTOR inhibitor.

Linagliptin inhibits high glucose-induced trans-differentiation of hypertrophic scar derived fibroblasts to myofibroblasts via IGF/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibro-proliferative disease after serious burns, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The study was performed to clarify the effect of high glucose (HG) on HS. The expression of Col1, Col3 and α-SMA were up-regulated in HS derived fibroblasts (HSFs) exposed to HG (20mM, 30mM), and HG activated the phosphorylated protein expression of IGF/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in HSFs. Dpp4, a marker targeted the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was overexpressed in HG-induced HSFs. Lina...

Long non-coding RNA UCA1 Upregulation Promotes the Migration of Hypoxia-resistant Gastric Cancer Cells Through the miR-7-5p/EGFR Axis.

A variety of solid tumors are surrounded by a hypoxic microenvironment, which is known to be associated with high metastatic capability and resistance to various clinical therapies, contributing to a poor survival rate for cancer patients. Although the majority of previous studies on tumor-associated hypoxia have focused on acute hypoxia, chronic hypoxia more closely mimics the actual hypoxic microenvironment of a tumor. In this study, two novel hypoxia-resistant gastric cancer (HRGC) cell lines which could...


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