PubMed Journals Articles About "JUUL ENDS Virginia Tobacco Nicotine Strength JUUL ENDS" - Page: 5 RSS

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Showing "JUUL ENDS Virginia Tobacco nicotine strength JUUL ENDS" PubMed Articles 101–125 of 3,700+

Randomized Trial of Low-Nicotine Cigarettes and Transdermal Nicotine.

A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may decrease smoking, but also increase demand for other nicotine products. The present study tested the impact of smoking cigarettes with very low nicotine content and concurrent use of a transdermal nicotine patch.

The association between participation in Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Program (NREGA) and smoking in India.

This paper examines whether participating in Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Program (NREGA) is associated with the likelihood of smoking among program participants in India.

A Drosophila cell-free system that senses DNA breaks and triggers phosphorylation signalling.

Preblastoderm Drosophila embryo development is characterized by fast cycles of nuclear divisions. Extracts from these embryos can be used to reconstitute complex chromatin with high efficiency. We now discovered that this chromatin assembly system contains activities that recognize unprotected DNA ends and signal DNA damage through phosphorylation. DNA ends are initially bound by Ku and MRN complexes. Within minutes, the phosphorylation of H2A.V (homologous to γH2A.X) initiates from DNA breaks and spreads ...

Identification of key residues that regulate the interaction of kinesins with microtubule ends.

Kinesins are molecular motors that use energy derived from ATP turnover to walk along microtubules, or when at the microtubule end, regulate growth or shrinkage. All kinesins that regulate microtubule dynamics have long residence times at microtubule ends, whereas those that only walk have short end-residence times. Here, we identify key amino acids involved in end binding by showing that when critical residues from Kinesin-13, which depolymerises microtubules, are introduced into Kinesin-1, a walking kines...

The Relationship Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Conventional Cigarette Smoking Is Largely Attributable to Shared Risk Factors.

The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among youth raises concerns about possible causal effects on conventional cigarette smoking. However, past research remains inconclusive due to heavy confounding between cigarette and e-cigarette use. This study uses propensity score methods to robustly adjust for shared risk in estimating the relationship between e-cigarette use and conventional smoking.

Smoking cessation, weight gain, and the trajectory of estimated risk of coronary heart disease: 8-year follow-up from a prospective cohort study.

The effect of weight gain following smoking cessation on cardiovascular risks is unclear. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association of weight gain following smoking cessation with the trajectory of estimated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Genetically determined metabolism of nicotine and its clinical significance.

Enzymes of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP 450) which belong to the family of oxidase enzymes, are present in cells of all organisms and play a major role in the first phase of xenobiotic metabolism. There are several isoenzymes of CYP 450 that show differences in the speed of metabolism: poor-, extensive- and ultra-rapid. Nicotine undergoes biotransformation in the liver mainly by the CYP2A6 isoform of CYP 450. There are many polymorphic isoforms of CYP2A6 affecting the metabolism of nicotine. There are also sev...

Advice to the European Commission as Regards Type and Criteria for Comprehensive Studies to Be Requested From Manufacturers: The Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental, and Emerging Risks (SCHEER).

The European Commission has established a priority list of 15 additives contained in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco subject to enhanced reporting obligations. The European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) prescribes that Member States shall require manufacturers and importers of tobacco products to carry out comprehensive studies on these additives to assess their contribution to any of the properties listed in Article 6 of the TPD: toxicity or addictiveness, characterizing flavor, inhalati...

Lamellipodium tip actin barbed ends serve as a force sensor.

Cells change direction of migration by sensing rigidity of environment and traction force, yet its underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that tip actin barbed ends serve as an active 'force sensor' at the leading edge. We established a method to visualize intracellular single-molecule fluorescent actin through an elastic culture substrate. We found that immediately after cell edge stretch, actin assembly increased specifically at the lamellipodium tip. The rate of actin assembly increased with incre...

Four-week administration of nicotinemoderately impacts blood metabolic profile and gut microbiota in a diet-dependent manner.

As the primary active component in tobacco, nicotine affects many aspects of human metabolism. Diet and gut microbiota are key factors that profoundly influence human lipid and glucose metabolism. However, the diet-based differential impacts of nicotine on blood lipid and glucose levels as well as on the gut microbiota are still largely unknown. Here we show that 4-week oral administration of nicotine (2 mg/kg) resulted in bodyweight and fat decrease in both normal-chow (NCD)- and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ...

Cigarette smoking is associated with lower quadriceps cross-sectional area and attenuation in older adults.

In addition to well-established links with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cigarette smoking may affect skeletal muscle; however, associations with quadriceps atrophy, density, and function are unknown. This study explored the associations of current and former smoking with quadriceps muscle area and attenuation as well as muscle force (assessed as knee extension peak torque) and rate of torque development (RTD) - a measure of muscle power in older adults.

Patterns of nicotine concentrations in electronic cigarettes sold in the United States, 2013-2018.

Considerable declines in cigarette smoking have occurred in the U.S. over the past half century. Yet emerging tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, have increased in popularity among U.S. youth and adults in recent years. Nicotine content is an important factor in weighing the potential benefits and risks of e-cigarettes on individual and population level health. This study examined how nicotine concentrations of e-cigarette products sold have changed from 2013 to 2018.

Perceived Pain and Smoking Interrelations and Expectancies Are Associated With Pain and Smoking Cessation in Individuals With Mobility Impairments.

Smoking and pain are highly prevalent among individuals with mobility impairments (MIs; use assistive devices to ambulate). The role of pain-related smoking motives and expectancies in smoking cessation is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between a novel measure of pain-related smoking motives (how smokers with pain perceive their pain and smoking to be interrelated) and pain and smoking behavior in smokers with MI.

Text Message Support for Smoking Cessation During Ramadan: A Focus Group Study with Somali Immigrant Muslim Men.

Somali Muslim male immigrants in Minnesota have a high prevalence of smoking, estimated at 44%, compared with the average smoking rate for adults in the United States (14%). However, the literature has reported spontaneous reductions of smoking during Ramadan. This study sought to gather the views of Somali Muslim men on how faith impacts their smoking, and determine what messaging to incorporate into a tailored text messages intervention that draws on the Muslim faith beliefs and practices during Ramadan t...

Nicotine addiction as a moral problem: Barriers to e-cigarette use for smoking cessation in two working-class areas in Northern England.

Tobacco use in high-income countries correlates with socio-economic disadvantage, but although switching to electronic cigarettes could be a safer alternative, little is known about barriers to use. Drawing on eighteen months of data collection in two areas of Northern England in 2017/18 including ethnography and interviews with 59 smokers and e-cigarette users, I show that concern about continued nicotine addiction either deterred working-class smokers from switching to e-cigarettes or dictated the conditi...

Spatiotemporal organization of branched microtubule networks.

To understand how chromosomes are segregated, it is necessary to explain the precise spatiotemporal organization of microtubules (MTs) in the mitotic spindle. We use egg extracts to study the nucleation and dynamics of MTs in branched networks, a process that is critical for spindle assembly. Surprisingly, new branched MTs preferentially originate near the minus-ends of pre-existing MTs. A sequential reaction model, consisting of deposition of nucleation sites on an existing MT, followed by rate-limiting n...

Quantitative biochemical screening for marijuana use and concordance with tobacco use in urban adolescents.

Assessing the prevalence and level of exposure (dose) of tobacco and marijuana use is important in studies of harm from use of these substances. We used biochemical analysis of urine to quantitatively assess exposure to nicotine and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adolescents receiving medical care in a public hospital METHODS: Participants were 686 adolescents between 12 and 21 years old seen at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital between 2012 and 2014. Urine samples were assayed using high sen...

Prevalence and analysis of tobacco use disorder in patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

Tobacco use disorder (TUD), previously known as nicotine dependence, was associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, little is known about the prevalence of TUD and symptom manifestation in smokers with lung cancer.

Similarities and differences between sexes and countries in the mortality imprint of the smoking epidemic in 34 low-mortality countries, 1950-2014.

The smoking epidemic greatly affected mortality levels and trends, especially among men in low-mortality countries. The objective of the current paper is to examine similarities and differences between sexes and low-mortality countries in the mortality imprint of the smoking epidemic. This will provide important additions to the smoking epidemic model, but also improve our understanding of the differential impact of the smoking epidemic, and provide insights into its future impact.

Acute and chronic interactive treatments of serotonin 5HT and dopamine D receptor systems for decreasing nicotine self-administration in female rats.

A variety of neural systems are involved in the brain bases of tobacco addiction. Animal models of nicotine addiction have helped identify a variety of interacting neural systems involved in the pathophysiology of tobacco addiction. We and others have found that drug treatments affecting many of those neurotransmitter systems significantly decrease nicotine self-administration. These treatments include dopamine D receptor antagonist, histamine H1 antagonist, serotonin 5HT agonist, glutamate NMDA antagonist,...

Central nicotine induces browning through hypothalamic κ opioid receptor.

Increased body weight is a major factor that interferes with smoking cessation. Nicotine, the main bioactive compound in tobacco, has been demonstrated to have an impact on energy balance, since it affects both feeding and energy expenditure at the central level. Among the central actions of nicotine on body weight, much attention has been focused on its effect on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, though its effect on browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is unclear. Here, we show that nicotine i...

The ends of medicine and the crisis of chronic pain.

Pellegrino and Thomasma have proposed a normative medical ethics founded on a conception of the end of medicine detached from any broader notion of the telos of human life. In this essay, I question whether such a narrow teleological account of medicine can be sustained, taking as a starting point Pellegrino and Thomasma's own contention that the end of medicine projects itself onto the intermediate acts that aim at that end. In order to show how the final end of human life similarly alters intermediate end...

Hardening or softening? An observational study of changes to the prevalence of hardening indicators in Victoria, Australia, 2001-2016.

The hardening hypothesis predicts that as smoking prevalence declines, remaining smokers will be more heavily addicted to nicotine and/or less interested in quitting. We tested this hypothesis in a population exposed to a comprehensive tobacco control programme over a 16-year period.

Prokaryotic and Mitochondrial Linear Genomes: Their Genesis, Evolutionary Significance, and the Problem of Replicating Chromosome Ends.

Bacterial chromosomes are widely thought of as circular DNA molecules. However, linear bacterial chromosomes, as well as linear mitochondrial and plastid chromosomes, are fairly common. The most frequent causes of linearization are reparation system defects, incorporation of plasmids in the genome, and recombination compromising the circular topology of chromosomes. Genomes of some bacterial species had undergone frequent linearization-circularization events, which resulted in an increased variability of ge...

Assessing the immunogenicity and toxicity of the AFPL1-conjugate nicotine vaccine using heterologous and homologous vaccination routes.

Despite the increased risks of cancers and cardiovascular related diseases, tobacco smoking continues to be prevalent in the population due largely in part to the addictive nature of nicotine. Nicotine vaccines are an attractive alternative to the current smoking cessation options but have yet to be successful enough in clinical trials to reach the market due to a lack of neutralizing antibodies and inconsistent results. Using AFPL1 derived from the Cuban meningococcal vaccine as an adjuvant, we have previo...

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