PubMed Journals Articles About "Artemether Lumefantrine Malaria" - Page: 5 RSS

11:15 EDT 15th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "artemether lumefantrine Malaria" PubMed Articles 101–125 of 458

Prevalence of G6PD deficiency and associated haematological parameters in children from Botswana.

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly seen in malaria endemic areas as it is known to confer a selective advantage against malaria. Recently, we reported a high proportion of asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana, that calls for intervention with primaquine to achieve radical cure of vivax malaria. Considering that individuals with this enzyme deficiency are at risk of haemolysis following primaquine treatment, assessment of the population for the relative frequenc...

Blood parasites shape extreme MHC diversity in a migratory passerine.

Pathogens are one of the main forces driving the evolution and maintenance of the highly polymorphic genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC proteins are crucial in pathogen recognition, it is still poorly understood how pathogen-mediated selection promotes and maintains MHC diversity, and especially so in host species with highly duplicated MHC genes. Sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) have highly duplicated MHC genes and using data from high-throughput MHC gen...

Capacitive malaria aptasensor using Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase as target antigen in undiluted human serum.

A capacitive aptasensor for detecting the malaria biomarker, Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase (PfGDH), directly in human serum samples developed. A thiolated ssDNA aptamer (NG3) that binds specifically to PfGDH antigen with high affinity (K= 79 nM) was used to develop the aptasensor. The aptasensor produced capacitance response at an optimized frequency of 2 Hz in a non-Faradaic electrochemical impedance based signal transduction platform. The aptasensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 10...

Malaria burden and treatment targets in Kachin Special Region II, Myanmar from 2008 to 2016: A retrospective analysis.

Although drug-based treatment is the primary intervention for malaria control and elimination, optimal use of targeted treatments remains unclear. From 2008 to 2016, three targeted programs on treatment were undertaken in Kachin Special Region II (KR2), Myanmar. Program I (2008-2011) treated all confirmed, clinical and suspected cases; program II (2012-2013) treated confirmed and clinical cases; and program III (2014-2016) targeted confirmed cases only. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the three p...

A diagnostic performance evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy for malaria diagnosis using nested polymerase chain reaction as reference standard in a tertiary hospital in Jos, Nigeria.

Rapid diagnostic tests are frequently used in healthcare settings across Nigeria for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is the commonest form of malaria in the country. In this study, the performance of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was compared with expert microscopy using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference standard in a tertiary hospital in Jos, Nigeria.

Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya.

The global increase in vector borne diseases has been linked to climate change. Seasonal vegetation changes are known to influence disease vector population. However, the relationship is more theoretical than quantitatively defined. There is a growing demand for understanding and prediction of climate sensitive vector borne disease risks especially in regions where meteorological data are lacking. This study aimed at analyzing and quantitatively assessing the seasonal and year-to-year association between cl...

Safety of single dose primaquine in G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal males in Mali without malaria: an open-label, phase 1, dose-adjustment trial.

The World Health Organization recommendation on the use of single low-dose primaquine (SLD-PQ) to reduce Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission requires more safety data.

The Etiology of Placental Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in African Women.

Plasmodium falciparum parasites causing placental malaria (PM) express the VAR2CSA type of the clonally variant antigen family PfEMP1. This enables evasion of pre-existing immunity and results in placental accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IEs). We present data on seasonal variation in levels of VAR2CSA-specific IgG and IgG specific for a PM-unrelated PfEMP1 protein among Ghanaian women at first antenatal visit. Our results indicate that PM does not require recent exposure to infected mosquitoes, in co...

From human antibody structure and function towards the design of a novel Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein malaria vaccine.

Malaria is a life-threatening vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that infect millions of people in endemic areas every year. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S targets the immune response against circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (PfCSP), the most deadly Plasmodium species in humans. PfCSP plays a fundamental role in parasite development as well as the establishment of the infection and is a molecular target of protective antibodies. However, RTS,S shows overa...

Peek-Peak-Pique: Repeating Motifs of Subtle Variance Are Targets for Potent Malaria Antibodies.

Biomedical interventions to curb malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections are critically needed. Two studies in Nature Medicine,Kisalu et al. (2018) and Tan et al. (2018), report the isolation of potent human antibodies that target a new epitope on Pf sporozoites and mediate effective parasite inhibition in pre-clinical models.

Mathematical modeling of climate change and malaria transmission dynamics: a historical review.

Malaria, one of the greatest historical killers of mankind, continues to claim around half a million lives annually, with almost all deaths occurring in children under the age of five living in tropical Africa. The range of this disease is limited by climate to the warmer regions of the globe, and so anthropogenic global warming (and climate change more broadly) now threatens to alter the geographic area for potential malaria transmission, as both the Plasmodium malaria parasite and Anopheles mosquito vecto...

Negligible Impact of Mass Screening and Treatment on Meso-endemic Malaria Transmission at West Timor in Eastern Indonesia: A Cluster-Randomised Trial.

Mass screening and treatment (MST) aims to reduce malaria risk in communities by identifying and treating infected without regard to illness.

Malaria Makes the Most of Mealtimes.

Successive synchronized cycles of Plasmodium replication in the host's blood causes the symptoms of malaria and fuels disease transmission. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Hirako et al. (2018) reveal that host circadian rhythms of inflammation and metabolism are responsible for the timing of cycles of parasite replication.

Sequence variation in Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-2 is associated with virulence causing severe and cerebral malaria.

Parasite virulence, an important factor contributing to the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, varies among P. falciparum strains. Relatively little is known regarding markers of virulence capable of identifying strains responsible for severe malaria. We investigated the effects of genetic variations in the P.f. merozoite surface protein 2 gene (msp2) on virulence, as it was previously postulated as a factor. We analyzed 300 msp2 sequences of single P. falciparum clone infection from patients with...

Enteroparasite and vivax malaria co-infection on the Brazil-French Guiana border: Epidemiological, haematological and immunological aspects.

Malaria-enteroparasitic co-infections are known for their endemicity. Although they are prevalent, little is known about their epidemiology and effect on the immune response. This study evaluated the effect of enteroparasite co-infections with malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in a border area between Brazil and French Guiana. The cross sectional study took place in Oiapoque, a municipality of Amapá, on the Amazon border. Malaria was diagnosed using thick blood smears, haemoglobin dosage by an automated m...

Widespread mosquito net fishing in the Barotse floodplain: Evidence from qualitative interviews.

The insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) is a crucial component of malaria control programs, and has prevented many malaria cases and deaths due to scale up. ITNs also serve effectively as fishing nets and various sources have reported use of ITNs for fishing. This article examines how widespread the practice of mosquito net fishing with ITNs is.

Drug targets for resistant malaria: Historic to future perspectives.

New antimalarial targets are the prime need for the discovery of potent drug candidates. In order to fulfill this objective, antimalarial drug researches are focusing on promising targets in order to develop new drug candidates. Basic metabolism and biochemical process in the malaria parasite, i.e. Plasmodium falciparum can play an indispensable role in the identification of these targets. But, the emergence of resistance to antimalarial drugs is an escalating comprehensive problem with the progress of anti...

α-Tocopheryl succinate-suppressed development of cerebral malaria in mice.

α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), a derivative of vitamin E, is synthesized by esterification of α-tocopherol. It has been reported that α-TOS inhibits the mitochondrial complex II resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species, which triggers selective apoptosis in a large number of cancer cells, while it appears largely non-toxic towards normal cells. Plasmodium parasites are well known to have high sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, α-TOS is suspected to impact Plasmodium parasites by oxidativ...

Cutting Edge: Plasmodium falciparum Induces Trained Innate Immunity.

Malarial infection in naive individuals induces a robust innate immune response. In the recently described model of innate immune memory, an initial stimulus primes the innate immune system to either hyperrespond (termed training) or hyporespond (tolerance) to subsequent immune challenge. Previous work in both mice and humans demonstrated that infection with malaria can both serve as a priming stimulus and promote tolerance to subsequent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that initial stimulation with...

Misuse of Artemisinin Combination Therapies by Clients of Medicine Retailers Suspected to Have Malaria Without Prior Parasitological Confirmation in Nigeria.

Prompt and effective case detection and treatment are vital components of the malaria case management strategy as malaria-endemic countries implement the testing, treating and tracking policy. The implementation of this policy in public and formal private sectors continue to receive great attention while the informal private retail sector (mostly the patent and propriety medicine vendors [PPMVs]) where about 60% of patients with fever in Nigeria seek treatment is yet to be fully integrated. The PPMVs sell a...

Disentangling complex parasite interactions: Protection against cerebral malaria by one helminth species is jeopardized by co-infection with another.

Multi-species interactions can often have non-intuitive consequences. However, the study of parasite interactions has rarely gone beyond the effects of pairwise combinations of species, and the outcomes of multi-parasite interactions are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of co-infection by four gastrointestinal helminth species on the development of cerebral malaria among Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients. We characterized associations among the helminth parasite infra-community, and then...

Development of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays for quantification and rapid assessment of dihydroartemisinin contents in antimalarial drugs.

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is one of the artemisinin derivatives widely used in artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria treatment. The availability of a point-of-care device for estimation of DHA quantity would allow a quick quality assessment of the DHA-containing drugs. In this study, 9-O-succinylartemisinin was obtained from microbial fermentation of artemisinin, which was hydrogenated to 9-O-succinyldihydroartemisinin as the hapten for DHA. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as 2G1...

Complete avian malaria parasite genomes reveal features associated with lineage specific evolution in birds and mammals.

Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world, and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of high quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species,andWe identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalianspecies and using amino ...

The usefulness of C-reactive protein in predicting malaria parasitemia in a sub-Saharan African region.

Malaria remains a leading cause of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying patients who are at risk for severe manifestations at presentation still remains challenging. This study examines whether a semi-quantitative test on C-Reactive Protein (CRP) could be useful for rapidly predicting the presence or absence of malarial parasitemia in febrile children.

Inhaled nitric oxide and cognition in pediatric severe malaria: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial.

Severe malaria is a leading cause of acquired neurodisability in Africa and is associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. A neuroprotective role for inhaled NO has been reported in animal studies, and administration of inhaled NO in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a 47% reduced risk of cognitive impairment at two years of age.

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