PubMed Journal Database | Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care - Page: 6 RSS

07:19 EST 17th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 126–150 of 170 from Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care

Relevance of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and therapy of frailty.

This article reviews recently published evidence regarding the role of vitamin D in the physiopathology of physical frailty in elderly populations and its role in the management of this geriatric condition.

Body weight and body composition in old age and their relationship with frailty.

Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age.

The relevance of nutrition for the concept of cognitive frailty.

Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators.

Editorial introductions.

Risks and benefits of phytoestrogens: where are we now?

The estrogenic effects of genistein, as reconfirmed by the American National Toxicology Program (USA-NTP), have led to several new clinical studies being undertaken. Here, we highlight the most relevant recent data, reporting either beneficial or adverse effects.

Lean, but not healthy: the 'metabolically obese, normal-weight' phenotype.

Obesity is commonly associated with metabolic dysfunction but there are obese persons who are metabolically healthy. On the opposite side of the coin, there are lean persons who carry multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, typically referred to as metabolically obese, normal-weight (MONW). This has called into question our understanding of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, as an appearance of normal weight may mask significant comorbidities and delay health interventions.

Potential harmful effects of dietary supplements in sports medicine.

The purpose of this article is to collect the most recent data regarding the safety of well-known or emerging dietary supplements used by athletes.

Towards a multidimensional healthy ageing phenotype.

There is great interest in developing tools to measure healthy ageing and to identify early stages of health impairment, which may guide the implementation of interventions to prevent or delay the development of disease, disability, and mortality. Here, we review the most recent developments directed to operationalize, and test, definitions of healthy ageing.

Mediterranean diet and life expectancy; beyond olive oil, fruits, and vegetables.

The recent relevant evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and lifestyle on health (2015 and first months of 2016).

Skeletal muscle mitophagy in chronic disease: implications for muscle oxidative capacity?

Loss of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is a common feature of chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, and congestive heart failure. It may lead to physical impairments and has been suggested to contribute to metabolic inflexibility-induced cardiometabolic risk. The mechanism underlying loss of muscle oxidative capacity is incompletely understood. This review discusses the role of mitophagy as a driving force behind the loss of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity i...

Changes in circulating vitamin D levels with loss of adipose tissue.

Low vitamin D levels have been extensively reported in obesity. Thus, the pandemic of obesity has been paralleled by a high prevalence of low vitamin D status. Given the well documented associations linking poor vitamin D status to adverse health outcomes (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, all-cause mortality), a proper understanding of the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to low vitamin D status is key to identify and implement effective interventions to replenish vitamin D levels in obese indi...

Interactions of gut microbiota with dietary polyphenols and consequences to human health.

Dietary (poly)phenolic compounds have received attention over the last 20 years as antioxidants with preventive properties against chronic diseases. However, the evidence of these effects in clinical trials is weak, mainly because of a considerable interindividual variability. Polyphenols bioavailability is low, and gut microbiota metabolize them into simpler metabolites. As gut microbiota vary among individuals, such interindividual variability should be considered as a moderating factor in clinical trials...

New advances in analytical methods and assessment tools to identify deficiency and metabolic risk.

The role of amino acid profiles in diabetes risk assessment.

The concentrations of plasma-free amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, are associated with visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and the future development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses recent progress in the early assessment of the risk of developing diabetes and the reversal of altered plasma-free amino acids through interventions. Additionally, recent developments that have increased the utility of amino acid profiling technology are a...

Hepatic steatosis: a role for citrulline.

The high worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) makes it a major public health issue. Amino acids offer a promising approach for its prevention, and several experimental studies highlight the nutritional importance of citrulline in this setting. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential interest of citrulline in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

Quality of meal and appetite sensation.

The scope of this review is to summarize recent studies assessing the role of meal composition on appetite sensation.

Chyme reinfusion or enteroclysis in nutrition of patients with temporary double enterostomy or enterocutaneous fistula.

Patients with double temporary enterostomy or enterocutaneous fistula may suffer from intestinal failure. Parenteral nutrition is the gold standard treatment until surgical re-establishment of intestinal continuity, but serious complications may arise. Chyme reinfusion or enteroclysis are indicated.

Can specific nutrients stimulate bowel wound healing?

The purpose of review is to provide an overview on specific nutrients which play an important role in bowel wound healing, and to judge the efficacy of supplementation to derive recommendations for clinical practice.

Assessing zinc in humans.

To examine the most recent literature that provides new data regarding the potential and emerging biomarkers for zinc status in individuals.

Screening and assessment tools for pediatric malnutrition.

The ideal measures for screening and assessing undernutrition in children remain a point of discussion in literature. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advances in the nutritional screening and assessment methods in children.

Fn14: a new player in cancer-induced cachexia.

Although cancer cachexia is a very significant condition that is present in up to 80% of cancer cases, the cause of the condition has remained a puzzle. Cancer cachexia is a condition which is mainly characterised by muscle wasting, mobilization of fat reserves, and overall metabolic disturbance. This review aims to highlight some of the recent findings in cancer cachexia research.

Editorial introductions.

Obesity and tumor growth: inflammation, immunity, and the role of a ketogenic diet.

This article reviews the impact the obese state has on malignancy through inflammation and immune dysregulation using recent excerpts from the medical literature.

Sugar replacers: from technological challenges to consequences on health.

Dietary sugars play a role in noncommunicable diseases and represent a clear target for reduction. In this context, product reformulation can have a positive impact on health. Several technological solutions are available to replace sugar, all with benefits and limitations. The goal of this review is to describe the main sugar replacement alternatives and discuss their impact on health and product physico-chemical properties.

Sugar and metabolic health: is there still a debate?

There is considerable political and public awareness of new recommendations to reduce sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in our diets. It is therefore timely to review the most recent changes in guidelines, with a focus on evidence for metabolic health, recent research in the area and gaps in our knowledge.

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