PubMed Journal Database | Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care - Page: 7 RSS

08:10 EST 16th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 151–170 of 170 from Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care

Carbohydrate quantity and quality and cardio-metabolic risk.

This review highlights the recent research on the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) content and quality in body weight control, glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk.

Epigenetic mechanisms involved in modulation of inflammatory diseases.

The activation of inflammatory response is dependent upon genetic factors and epigenetic control mechanisms. This overview will highlight recent advances in the understanding of epigenetic dynamics during cellular inflammation.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling as a potential target to treat muscle wasting diseases.

The review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in skeletal muscle regeneration and the maintenance of muscle mass.

The need to differentiate fear for energy overfeeding from future benefits of protein feeding: so much to gain!

Editorial introductions.

Is early starvation beneficial for the critically ill patient?

Anorexia is a preserved evolutionally response that may be beneficial during acute illness. Yet current clinical practice guidelines recommend early and targeted enteral nutritional support. However, the optimal timing of the initiation of enteral nutrition and the caloric and protein requirements of critically ill patients is controversial.

Short update on docosapentaenoic acid: a bioactive long-chain n-3 fatty acid.

Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) is a long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is intermediary between eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the n-3 synthesis pathway. DPA is part of our normal diet through fish and lean red meat. In recent years, DPA has received increasing attention as an important bioactive fatty acid in light of its potential beneficial health effects, which include anti-inflammatory actions, antiplatelet aggregation, and improved plasma lipid prolife. This review provides ...

Assessment of skeletal muscle mass in critically ill patients: considerations for the utility of computed tomography imaging and ultrasonography.

Low muscularity and skeletal muscle atrophy are commonly exhibited in critically ill patients and have major implications on patient outcomes. Typically, in the ICU, body composition is assessed through anthropometrics or bioelectrical impedance analysis, but these modalities cannot specifically quantify skeletal muscle; thus, we evaluate the merits and challenges of using computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography to specifically measure skeletal muscle in the ICU.

Nutritional needs for the critically ill in relation to inflammation.

This review focuses on nutritional needs in critically ill patients. The inflammation corresponding to acute stress is highlighted. Simultaneously, we try to avoid limiting the perspective to only the acute phase.

The diverse nature of saturated fats and the case of medium-chain triglycerides: how one recommendation may not fit all.

The adverse cardiovascular health effects of saturated fats have been debated recently since the publication of studies reporting no increase in cardiovascular risk with saturated fat intakes. We purport that this may be because of the varied nature of saturated fats, which range in length from 2 to over 20 carbon atoms, and review evidence surrounding the cardiovascular health effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT).

Saturated fatty acids and coronary heart disease risk: the debate goes on.

Recently published meta-analyses of cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have challenged the link between saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. This review considers the outcome of these studies in the context of other evidence.

Premature aging in chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: similarities and differences.

There is increasing clinical and pathophysiological evidence that a premature aging process is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic complications of many chronic organ diseases, which result in analogous phenotypes, including premature vascular aging, osteoporosis and muscle wasting. Novel developments from research into the aging process will, therefore, have relevance for understanding complications of organ diseases, such as chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of...

The impact of gut microbiota on brain and behaviour: implications for psychiatry.

The gut microbiota has become a focus of research for those interested in the brain and behaviour. Here, we profile the gut microbiota in a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes.

Micronutrient and amino acid losses in acute renal replacement therapy.

A wide range of renal replacement therapies is now available to support patients with acute kidney injury. These treatments utilize diffusion, convection or a combination of these mechanisms to remove metabolic waste products from the bloodstream. It is inevitable that physiologically important substances including micronutrients will also be removed. Here we review current knowledge of the extent of micronutrient loss, how it varies between treatment modalities and its clinical significance.

Choosing the tool for osteoporosis risk prediction.

Predicting fracture risk is a major challenge because it allows the prevention of major osteoporotic fracture in high-risk populations. With the aging of the population, this matter will become of even greater importance. In recent years, novel clinical, biochemical, and imaging tools have been developed to improve the assessment of fracture risk.

Nutrition and the gastrointestinal tract.

Fructose and liver function - is this behind nonalcoholic liver disease?

The purpose was to summarize recent advances in the understanding of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology and the role of fructose in NAFLD.

Muscle strength: clinical and prognostic value of hand-grip dynamometry.

Grip strength measured by dynamometry is well established as an indicator of muscle status, particularly among older adults. This review was undertaken to provide a synopsis of recent literature addressing the clinical and prognostic value of hand-grip dynamometry.

Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity: a diagnostic dilemma.

Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) has gained attention as an emerging clinical entity. Data regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of NCGS are scattered in view of the diagnostic uncertainty surrounding the disorder. We aim to provide a current perspective of NCGS and its associated controversies.

Serum metabolomics in animal models and human disease.

The aim of this study is to highlight some recent uses of serum metabolomics in human and animal studies. The main themes are the importance of understanding the underlying variation in human metabolism and the use of serum metabolomics in disease profiling.

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