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PubMed Journal Database | AJR. American journal of roentgenology RSS

07:51 EST 25th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 949 from AJR. American journal of roentgenology

Abnormal Conditions of the Diskovertebral Segment: MRI With Anatomic-Pathologic Correlation.

The purpose of this article is to review the appearance of various abnormalities that affect the lumbar intervertebral disk and diskovertebral segment through anatomic-pathologic correlation in cadavers. Familiarity with the pathologic conditions in and around the intervertebral disk is important in recognizing such conditions as a potential source of symptoms. We revisit the principal role of MRI in evaluating these abnormalities and excluding other sources of significant clinical manifestations.

Diagnostic Performance of Mass Enhancement on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Predicting Clinically Significant Peripheral Zone Prostate Cancer.

Current criteria for positive findings on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) are unclear. We compared the diagnostic performance of mass enhancement on DCE-MRI versus conventional DCE-MRI criteria for identifying clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in the peripheral zone (PZ). A total of 173 consecutive patients with MRI- and surgically proven prostate cancer (PCa) were evaluated. Two readers independently interpreted DCE-MRI examinations of the PZ. Criteria denoting a positive DCE-MRI exam...

Value of Intratumoral Metabolic Heterogeneity and Quantitative F-FDG PET/CT Parameters in Predicting Prognosis for Patients With Cervical Cancer.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of quantitative metabolic parameters from pretreatment PET/CT scans of patients with squamous cell cervical cancer. This retrospective study included 120 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who underwent FDG PET/CT for initial tumor staging. The primary tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and mean standardized uptake value (SUV), tumor glycolytic activity, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and metabolic intrat...

Correlation Between Size and Function of Unilateral and Bilateral Adrenocortical Nodules: An Observational Study.

Adrenal incidentalomas occur in 5% of adults and can produce autonomous cortisol secretion that increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between adrenal nodule size measured on CT and autonomous cortisol secretion. In a prospective study of 73 patients 22-87 years old with incidentalomas, unilateral in 52 patients and bilateral in 21 patients, we measured maximum nodule diameter on CT and serum cortisol levels at 8:00 a...

MRI Findings Predictive of Shoulder Stiffness in Patients With Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears.

The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between stiff shoulder in patients with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear and MRI findings, especially joint capsule abnormality. This study included 106 patients with small to large (≤ 5 cm) full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Joint capsule edema and thickness in the axillary recess, obliteration of the subcoracoid fat triangle, fatty degeneration of the torn rotator cuff muscle, and degree of retraction were assessed by two radiologists. The s...

Pediatric Tongue Lesions: An Often-Overlooked but Important Collection of Diagnoses.

The purpose of this article is to discuss imaging techniques and provide a pictorial review of pediatric tongue lesions. Pediatric tongue lesions represent an often-overlooked collection of abnormalities with a variety of clinical and radiologic features. The location of these lesions places the patient at risk for airway compromise. Systematic imaging evaluation of pediatric tongue lesions can help the radiologist arrive at a correct and timely diagnosis, thus improving and expediting patient care.

Salt-and-Pepper Noise Sign on Fat-Fraction Maps by Chemical-Shift-Encoded MRI: A Useful Sign to Differentiate Bone Islands From Osteoblastic Metastases-A Preliminary Study.

The objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic utility of the "salt-and-pepper noise" sign on fat-fraction maps by chemical-shift-encoded MRI (CSE-MRI) compared with the halo sign on fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and mean attenuation on CT for differentiating bone islands from osteoblastic metastases. Twenty-nine patients with 43 sclerotic vertebral bone marrow lesions (26 osteoblastic metastases, 17 bone islands) were included retrospectively. All patients underwent CT and MRI, including a C...

Iodine Parameters in Triple-Bolus Dual-Energy CT Correlate With Perfusion CT Biomarkers of Angiogenesis in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of the relationship between perfusion CT (PCT) parameters and iodine concentration metrics derived from triple-bolus dual-energy CT (DECT) and to compare the radiation dose delivered. This single-center prospective study was conducted from October 2015 to September 2017. Twenty-three consenting adults (15 men and eight women; mean [± SD] age, 56 ± 13 years [range, 25-78 years]) with renal cell carcinomas underwent consecutive PCT and triple-bolus DECT ...

Retrospective Cohort Study of 1947 Thyroid Nodules: A Comparison of the 2017 American College of Radiology TI-RADS and the 2015 American Thyroid Association Classifications.

The objective of our study was to compare diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the 2017 American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) and 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) classifications for thyroid nodules. This study was a retrospective cohort study of 1947 consecutive thyroid nodules sampled with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) from 2007 to 2016. Reviewers assigned TI-RADS scores to all nodules while blinded to clinical outcome and histologic diagnosis and...

Fatality From Status Epilepticus After Myelography.

Myelography is a commonly used procedure to evaluate the spinal canal. However, the procedure is not without risk, chiefly risk of seizure after intrathecal administration of iodinated contrast material. The risk of seizure remains an important concern for radiologists, who should strongly consider practice parameter guidelines that address this risk.

Accuracy and Reliability of the Recommendation for IV Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke Based on Interpretation of Head CT on a Smartphone or a Laptop.

The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of IV thrombolysis recommendations made after interpretation of head CT images of patients with symptoms of acute stroke displayed on smartphone or laptop reading systems compared with those made after interpretation of images displayed on a medical workstation monitor. This retrospective study was institutional review board-approved, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. We used a factorial design including 2256 interpre...

Utility of Iodine Density Perfusion Maps From Dual-Energy Spectral Detector CT in Evaluating Cardiothoracic Conditions: A Primer for the Radiologist.

The purpose of this article is to outline the utility of iodine density maps for evaluating cardiothoracic disease and abnormalities. Multiple studies have shown that the variety of images generated from dual-energy spectral detector CT (SDCT) improve identification of cardiothoracic conditions. Understanding the technique of SDCT and being familiar with the features of different cardiothoracic conditions on iodine density map images help the radiologist make a better diagnosis.

Predictive Value of In Vivo MR Spectroscopy With Semilocalization by Adiabatic Selective Refocusing in Differentiating Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma From Other Subtypes.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) with semilocalization by adiabatic selective refocusing (semi-LASER MRS) in differentiating clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from the non-clear cell subtype. Sixteen patients with biopsy-proven RCC or masses highly suspicious for RCC were prospectively recruited to participate in the study. Single-voxel H spectra were acquired using a 3-T MRI system, with a semi-LASER sequence acquired for renal tumors in 14...

Detection of Bone Marrow Edema in the Head and Neck With Dual-Energy CT: Ready for Clinical Use?

The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of dual-energy CT (DECT) to identify bone marrow edema (BME) in the head and neck region in comparison with MRI as the standard of reference. A total of 33 patients who underwent imaging between February 2016 and February 2018 were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent both DECT and MRI for head and neck abnormalities. Two radiologists independently visually assessed virtual noncalcium (VNCa) reconstructions with color-coded maps for t...

Differences in Outcomes Associated With Individual Radiologists for Emergency Department Patients With Headache Imaged With CT: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 25,596 Patients.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether diagnostic radiologists impart variation into resource use and patient outcomes in emergency department (ED) patients undergoing CT for headache. This was a single-institution retrospective quality assurance cohort study of 25,596 unique adult ED patients undergoing head CT for headache from January 2012 to October 2017. CT examinations were interpreted by 55 attending radiologists (25 neuroradiologists, 30 radiologists of other specialties) who each inter...

VIDEO: Dynamic Ultrasound Evaluation for Soft-Tissue Injuries of the Extremities: Hand, Wrist, and Ankle.

The purpose of this article is to show the sonographic anatomy of the extremities relevant to various ligamentous, tendinous, and articular injuries occurring in the hand, wrist, and ankle. A brief discussion and depiction of the specific elements relevant to the pathophysiologic mechanism of these entities is followed by demonstrations of the dynamic ultrasound techniques that can be used to diagnose these injuries. The schematics and video clips illustrate the normal and pathologic features of these injur...

MRI Findings of Infectious Sacroiliitis in Children: Are There Age-Dependent Differences?

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various MRI findings of infectious sacroiliitis in children and with respect to age. This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included children with infectious sacroiliitis who underwent MRI examination between December 1, 2002, and September 30, 2018. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical outcome reviewed each MRI examination to determine the presence or absence of periarticular marrow edema, erosions, c...

Newly Developed Methods for Reducing Motion Artifacts in Pediatric Abdominal MRI: Tips and Pearls.

The purpose of this article is to review established and emerging methods for reducing motion artifacts in pediatric abdominal MRI. Clearly understanding the strengths and limitations of motion reduction methods can enable practitioners of pediatric abdominal MRI to select and combine the appropriate techniques and potentially reduce the need for sedation and anesthesia.

Effect of a Report Template-Enabled Quality Improvement Initiative on Use of Preferred Phrases for Communicating Normal Findings in Structured Abdominal CT and MRI Reports.

The objective of this study was to assess impact of a report template quality improvement (QI) initiative on use of preferred phrases for communicating normal findings in structured abdominal CT and MRI reports. This prospective QI initiative, designed to decrease use of equivocal phrases and increase use of preferred and acceptable phrases (defined by multidisciplinary experts including patient advocates) in radiology reports, was performed in an academic medical center with over 800,000 annual radiologic...

Secretin Improves Visualization of Nondilated Pancreatic Ducts in Children Undergoing MRCP.

The objective of our study was to assess whether secretin improves visualization of a nondilated pancreatic duct and whether it increases identification of variant duct anatomy on MRCP in pediatric patients. This study is a delayed retrospective review of MRCP images that were prospectively obtained of 50 volunteers without a history of pancreatic disease who ranged in age from 6 to 15 years old.. MRCP images (coronal 3D fast recovery fast spin-echo [FSE] and coronal single-shot FSE fat-saturated sequences...

Utility of Diagnostic Mammography as the Primary Imaging Modality for Palpable Lumps in Women With Almost Entirely Fatty Breasts.

The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of diagnostic mammography alone for evaluation of palpable symptoms in women with almost entirely fatty breast composition. All diagnostic mammograms performed for palpable symptoms in women who had been assigned a breast density of "almost entirely fatty" over an 8-year period (2009-2017) at an academic breast center were retrospectively identified. Each symptomatic breast was considered a separate case and analyses were performed at the case level. ...

Perceptions of Radiologists and Emergency Medicine Providers Regarding the Quality, Value, and Challenges of Outside Image Sharing in the Emergency Department Setting.

The purpose of this study is to assess the perceptions of radiologists and emergency medicine (EM) providers regarding the quality, value, and challenges associated with using outside imaging (i.e., images obtained at facilities other than their own institution). We surveyed radiologists and EM providers at a large academic medical center regarding their perceptions of the availability and utility of outside imaging. Thirty-four of 101 radiologists (33.6%) and 38 of 197 EM providers (19.3%) responded. A t...

What Interventional Radiologists Need to Know About Managing Severe Frostbite: A Meta-Analysis of Thrombolytic Therapy.

The purpose of this study is to review the various techniques and clinical management paradigms using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to treat severe frostbite injuries, which are relevant to the interventional radiologist. A literature search yielded 157 citations, which were manually screened for inclusion criteria of case reports, case series, cohort studies, and randomized prospective studies that reported the use of tPA to treat severe frostbite injuries, of which 16 qualified for review. Data extr...

Ciliated Muconodular Papillary Tumor of the Lung: Thin-Section CT Findings of 16 Cases.

The purpose of this article was to assess thin-section CT features of ciliated muconodular papillary tumors (CMPTs) of the lung and correlations between radiologic and pathologic findings. Thin-section CT findings of 16 patients (10 men and six women; mean age, 70.7 years) with surgically resected CMPTs were retrospectively analyzed. Size, location, and internal characteristics of the tumors were evaluated. The amount of mucin in the tumors was assessed histopathologically and compared with CT findings. Tu...

Hacking and Ransomware: Challenges for Institutions Both Large and Small.

This commentary discusses the need for awareness of and action against hackers and ransomware to protect medical data. Efforts must be made by medical groups at all levels to reinforce security measures, maintain an upgraded computing infrastructure to combat new hacking techniques, and share knowledge obtained from hacking incidents.


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