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Failure to test children for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) when they have HIV-positive mothers is common in both high-income and lower-income settings. Children who are older at the time of their mother's HIV diagnosis face a higher risk of not being tested (1). In low-resource environments, about 25% of vertically HIV-1 infected and untreated children may be expected to reach the age of 13 (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most common cause of a periodic fever in childhood. The exact pathogenesis and the aetiology of PFAPA are still unknown.
Abdominal pain is a frequent reason for paediatric emergency department visits, but specific research is lacking. Our aim was to obtain information on the diagnosis of abdominal pain and what healthcare services children with this condition need.
General movement assessment requires substantial expertise for accurate visual interpretation. Our aim was to evaluate an automated pose estimation method, using conventional video records, to see if it could capture infant movements using objective biomarkers.
To investigate whether motor performance in school-age children without cerebral palsy, cooled for neonatal encephalopathy, is associated with perinatal factors and 18-month developmental scores and to explore relationships between school-age motor and cognitive performance.
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated food allergy, which is confined to the gastrointestinal tract and occurs most frequently in the first year of life. Our aim was to examine the clinical features, causative agents and outcomes of Greek children with FPIES.
The primary objective was to assess the effect of prematurity at term-equivalent age on skin conductance and behavioural responses to acute stress. The secondary objective was to explore the reliability of skin conductance in detecting neonatal discomfort in preterm and full-term populations.
Physical activity (PA) has been associated with several health benefits in children, while inactivity has been associated with various diseases. The World Health Organization recommends a minimum of 60 minutes of PA per day for children, but only 20% of 11 to 17-year-old children achieve this. A better understanding of the socio-ecological factors that underlie PA habits may lead to more effective interventions that increase childhood PA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Haematohidrosis is a rare and dramatic condition in which bleeding occurs spontaneously from intact skin. We report the case of a nine-year-old boy with a typical clinical presentation. The case highlights how challenging it can be for medical professionals to recognize and evaluate rare conditions. A review of the literature was performed, showing that haematohidrosis is mainly a paediatric condition. Our case together with findings from the review indicates that treatment with Beta blockers may be effecti...
Obesity may start early in life. We investigated relationships between size and body composition variables in infancy and at four years of age using valid estimates of body composition. The results were compared to those obtained when body mass index (BMI) was used to estimate body fatness at four years.
Structured light plethysmography (SLP) is a novel light-based method that captures chest wall movements to evaluate tidal breathing. We carried out a narrative mini-review of the clinical use of SLP in paediatrics.
We agree with Dr. Meyer (1) that socioeconomic disparities are far from being solved and, in fact, US disparities have increased in the past decade. Most studies on socioeconomic status attempt to disentangle specific factors mediating the inequities linked with poor health outcomes. Because of complex interactions between individual factors, we proposed a socioeconomic adversity index (SAI) combining such factors in the US(2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Improved survival rates for premature infants have also increased the population at risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). This study evaluated the outcomes of surgically treated NEC and identified risk factors for mortality, intestinal failure (IF) and IF associated liver disease (IFALD).
Children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia face increased risks of thromboembolism, and major risk factors for this serious treatment-related toxicity are central venous lines, asparaginase and steroids. Central venous lines have become standard care in paediatric oncology, facilitating therapy and improving patients' quality of life. However, up to half of the children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia will develop asymptomatic central venous line-related thromboembolism. This article is protected by cop...
Suicide is a leading cause of premature mortality and a major public health concern (1). It is more common in low- and middle-income countries like Bangladesh, where the rate is 39.6 per 100,000 population, compared to the estimated global average of 11.4 (2). Adolescents represent more than one-fifth of the Bangladeshi population (3), but there is limited information on how health behaviours like physical activity (PA) affect suicidal thoughts and behaviours in this vulnerable group. Identifying potentiall...
An ever-increasing body of data has demonstrated a close link between poverty and an increased risk for developing chronic non-communicable diseases and psychopathology. A study by Anand et al, published in Acta Paediatrica, studied the effects of socioeconomic adversity on the health on 1,503 pregnant girls and women aged 16-40 years without pregnancy complications or pre-existing conditions, including social, familial and economic factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Concerns for infant destabilization often prohibit parental holding of infants during therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We assessed the feasibility of maternal holding during TH, as the inability to hold can impede bonding.
Our primary aim was to calculate the head computed tomography (CT) scan rate in children with a minor head injury (MHI) when the Dutch National guidelines were followed in clinical practice. The secondary aim was to determine the incidence of CT abnormalities and the guideline predictors associated with traumatic abnormalities.
Fentanyl pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are lacking in preterm infants. Our aim was to study these and their relation with a new formulation of fentanyl 5μg/mL for procedural pain.
Shared decision-making (SDM) is the accepted standard for medical decision-making. It is a model that explicitly values input from both the clinical team and the patient or family. Patients and their surrogates vary in their preferences for participation in medical decision-making (1). Families in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) demonstrate a wide range of preferred involvement in the SDM process r. Little is known about which parental characteristics may influence these differences in decision-maki...
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. A higher proportion of boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD, although girls seek care for ADHD at an older age, and almost to the same extent as men by adulthood (1). The sex difference in prevalence rates during childhood may hypothetically reflect a bias in referral patterns, where adults perceive and value girls' symptoms differently to boys' sympto...
Fever phobia describes exaggerated concerns about the consequences of childhood fever and broader awareness is needed in everyday clinical practice. We investigated the factors associated with fever phobia in caregivers and healthcare providers and the geographical distribution of the issue.
We developed a new case presentation technique, SITUPS, and studied its impact on the patient presentations by medical students at a pediatric emergency department. The students' opinions about the usefulness of the technique were also assessed.