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PubMed Journal Database | American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism RSS

00:41 EST 23rd January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 282 from American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism

Enoyl Coenzyme A Hydratase 1 Combats Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders by Promoting Adipose Tissue Browning.

Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been recognized as an important strategy for the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Enoyl coenzyme A hydratase 1 (ECH1) is a widely known enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. However, whether and how ECH1 is implicated in browning of WAT remains obscure. Adeno-associated virus-mediated genetic engineering of ECH1 in adipose tissue was used in investigations in mouse models of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) or browning induced by cold ...

Overexpression of miR-297b-5p protects against stearic acid-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis by targeting LATS2.

Chronic exposure to high concentrations of stearic acid (C18:0) can result in β-cell dysfunction, leading to development of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the destructive effects of stearic acid on β-cells remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-297b-5p on stearic acid-induced β-cell apoptosis.

The postnatal leptin surge is critical for the transient induction of the developmental beige adipocytes in mice.

Beige adipocytes have become a promising therapeutic target to combat obesity. Our senior author Xue previously discovered a transient but significant induction of beige adipocytes in mice during early postnatal development in mice, which peaked at postnatal day 20 (P20) and then disappeared thereafter. However, the physiological mechanism underlying the transient induction of the developmental beige cells remains mystery. Interestingly, there exists a postnatal surge of leptin in mice at postnatal day P10 ...

TGF-β1 promotes vitamin D-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis by upregulating vitamin D receptor expression in human granulosa-lutein cells.

There is increasing evidence showing the importance of vitamin D (Vit D) and its nuclear receptor, the Vit D receptor (VDR), in female reproductive health. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and its functional receptors are expressed in human oocytes and granulosa cells that participate in follicular development and ovulation. Recently, SMAD3 (a downstream effector of TGF-β1) has been proposed to mediate crosstalk between the Vit D and TGF-β1 signaling pathways, but this relationship has not been fu...

Upregulated Phospholipase D Activity Towards Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins in Micelle-Like Serum Complexes in Diabetic/Obese Rats and Humans.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-AP) with the complete glycolipid anchor attached are present in rat and human serum at amounts which are lower in insulin-resistant/obese rats compared to normal ones. These findings prompted further evaluation of the potential of full-length GPI-AP for the prediction and stratification of metabolically deranged states. A comparison of the signatures of horizontal surface acoustic waves which were generated by full-length GPI-AP in course of their specific...

Pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila protects from fat mass gain but not from bone loss.

Probiotic bacteria can protect from ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss in mice. is considered to have probiotic potential due to its beneficial effect on obesity and insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if treatment with pasteurized (p could prevent ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with vehicle or p for 4 weeks, starting 3 days before ovx or sham surgery. Treatment with p reduced fat mass accumulation confirming earlier findings. However, treatment with p decrease...

Supplementation of a propionate-producing consortium improves markers of insulin resistance in an in vitro model of gut-liver axis.

Gut-liver crosstalk is an important determinant of human health with profound effects on energy homeostasis. While gut microbes produce a huge range of metabolites, specific compounds such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) can enter the portal circulation and reach the liver, a central organ involved in glucose homeostasis and diabetes control. Propionate is a major SCFA involved in activation of intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), thereby regulating food intake, enhancing insulin sensitivity and leading to m...

Progesterone and estrogen regulate NALCN expression in human myometrial smooth muscle cells.

During pregnancy, the uterus transitions from a quiescent state to an excitable, highly contractile state to deliver the fetus. Two important contributors essential for this transition are hormones and ion channels, both of which modulate myometrial smooth muscle cell (MSMC) excitability. Recently, the Na leak channel, non-selective (NALCN) was shown to contribute to a Na leak current in human MSMCs, and mice lacking NALCN in the uterus had dysfunctional labor. Microarray data suggested that the pro-quiesce...

Thioredoxin-interacting protein regulates glucose metabolism and improves the intracellular redox state in bovine oocytes during in vitro maturation.

The extent of glucose metabolism during oocyte maturation is closely related to oocyte developmental potential. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is an α-arrestin family protein that negatively regulates glucose uptake into cells. However, little information is available regarding the function of TXNIP in bovine oocytes. Accordingly, the present study was performed to investigate the influence of TXNIP on glucose metabolism in bovine oocytes during maturation. Pharmacological inhibition of TXNIP by ...

Skeletal muscle lipid droplets are resynthesized before being coated with perilipin proteins following prolonged exercise in elite male triathletes.

Intramuscular triglycerides (IMTG) are a key substrate during prolonged exercise, but little is known about the rate of IMTG resynthesis in the post-exercise period. We investigated the hypothesis that the distribution of the lipid droplet (LD)-associated perilipin (PLIN) proteins is linked to IMTG storage following exercise. 14 elite male triathletes (27±1 y, 66.5±1.3 mL.kg.min) completed 4 h of moderate-intensity cycling. During the first 4 h of recovery, subjects received either carbohydrate or HO, aft...

Measurement of bioactive osteocalcin in humans using a novel immunoassay reveals association with glucose metabolism and β-cell function.

Osteocalcin (OCN) is a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. In serum, OCN exists in carboxylated and uncarboxylated forms (ucOCN), and studies in rodents suggest that ucOCN is the bioactive form of this hormone. However, whether this is also the case in humans is unclear, because a reliable assay to measure ucOCN is not available. Here, we established and validated a new immunoassay (ELISA) measuring human ucOCN, and used it to determine the level of bioactive OCN in two co...

A Low Protein Diet during Gestation and Lactation Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation through Autophagy and Histone Deacetylase.

The present study examined the mechanism of a low protein (LP) diet on hepatic lipid metabolism during gestation and lactation. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or an LP diet during gestation and lactation. LP dams had increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation and significantly higher aspartate/alanine transaminase ratio, accompanied by a decrease in circulating very low-density/low-density lipoprotein ratio. LC3B (Microtubule Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 Beta) expression was st...

Down-regulation of microRNA-873 attenuates insulin resistance and myocardial injury in rats with gestational diabetes mellitus by up-regulating IGFBP2.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance, and patients with GDM have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to be involved in the regulation of myocardial injury. Moreover, miR-873 was predicted to target insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) through bioinformatic analysis, which was further confirmed using a luciferase assay. Thus, our objective was to assess whether microRNA-873 (miR-873) affe...

Effect of acute and short-term dietary fat ingestion on postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in middle-aged, overweight and obese men.

Muscle anabolic resistance to dietary protein is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. However, the contribution of excess consumption of fat to anabolic resistance is not well studied. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that acute and short-term dietary fat overload will impair the skeletal muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. Eight overweight/obese males [46.4±1.4 years, BMI 32.3±5.4 kg/m] participated in the acute feeding study, which consisted of 2...

CMKLR1 deficiency attenuates androgen-inducedlipid accumulation in mice.

Excess androgen-induced obesity has become a public health problem, and its prevalence has increased substantially in recent years. Chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), a receptor of Chemerin secreted by adipose tissue, is linked to adipocyte differentiation, adipose tissue development and obesity. However, the effect of CMKLR1 signaling on androgen-mediated adiposity remains unclear. Here, using pharmacological method, orchidectomized model and CMKLR1 knockout mice, we demonstrated that androgen excess in ...

Trafficking of non-esterified fatty acids in insulin resistance and relationship to dys-glycemia.

In adipose, insulin functions to suppress intracellular lipolysis and secretion of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) into plasma. Current tests of insulin resistance do not test this response. We applied glucose and NEFA minimal models (MM) following a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) to assess glucose-specific and NEFA-specific insulin resistance. We used total NEFA and individual fatty acids in the NEFA MM, comparing the model parameters in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) subject...

DPP4 deletion in adipose tissue improves hepatic insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

Besides a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is an adipokine linked to human obesity. We aimed to explore role of adipocyte-derived DPP4 in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D prevents renal oxidative damage via the PARP1/SIRT1/NOX4 pathway in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most important renal complications associated with diabetes and the mechanisms are yet to be fully understood. To date, few studies have shown the anti-oxidant effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25(OH)D) on hyperglycemia-induced renal injury. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential mechanism by which 1,25(OH)D reduced oxidative stress in diabetic rat kidneys. In this study, we established a vitamin D-deficient spontaneous diabetes model: 5-6 we...

Differential Intestinal and Oral Microbiota Features Associated with Gestational Diabetes and Maternal Inflammation.

Maternal microbiota is involved in many metabolic diseases. However, its role in the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unclear. In this case-control study, we performed 16S rRNA sequencing based microbial survey to compare the intestinal and oral microflora at third trimester during pregnancy between 30 GDM and 31 normal controls. Sequentially, a correlation-based network analysis was further performed to explore the interactions among microbiota, maternal and infant blood sugar...

Seven-day overfeeding enhances adipose tissue dietary fatty acid storage and decreases myocardial and muscle dietary fatty acid partitioning in healthy subjects.

Increased myocardial partitioning of dietary fatty acids (DFA) and decreased left-ventricular (LV) function is associated with insulin resistance in prediabetes.

The insulin sensitizer mechanism of Myo-inositol is associated to AMPK activation and GLUT-4 expression in human endometrial cells exposed to a PCOS environment.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), is an endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction but also obesity and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics induce an insulin-resistant state in tissues as endometrium, affecting its reproductive functions. Myo-inositol (MYO) is an insulin-sensitizer compound used in PCOS patients; however, its insulin-sensitizer mechanism is unclear. To understand the relationship of MYO with insulin action in endometrial cells, SMIT-1 (MYO-t...

Pgc1a is responsible for the sex differences in hepatic Cidec/Fsp27β mRNA expression in hepatic steatosis of mice fed a Western diet.

Hepatic fat-specific protein 27 () mRNA levels have been associated with hepatic lipid droplet extent under certain circumstances. To address its hepatic expression under different dietary conditions and in both sexes, deficient mice were subjected to different experimental conditions for 11 weeks to test the influence of cholesterol, Western diet, squalene, oleanolic acid, sex and surgical castration on mRNA expression. Dietary cholesterol increased hepatic expression, an effect that was suppressed when ...

An AMPK/Axin1-Rac1 Signaling Pathway Mediates Contraction-regulated Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells.

Contraction stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake predominantly through activation of AMPK and Rac1. However, the molecular details of how contraction activates these signaling proteins is not clear. Recently, Axin1 has been shown to form a complex with AMPK and LKB1 during glucose-starvation dependent activation of AMPK. Here, we demonstrate electrical pulse stimulated (EPS) contraction of C2C12 myotubes or treadmill exercise of C57BL/6 mice enhanced reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation of Axin1 and AMPK ...

Pregnancy and diet-related changes in the maternal gut microbiota following exposure to an elevated linoleic acid diet.

Dietary intakes of linoleic acid (LA) have increased, including in women of reproductive age. Changes in maternal gut microbiome have been implicated in the metabolic adaptions that occur during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate if consumption of a diet with elevated LA altered fecal microbiome diversity prior to and during pregnancy. Female Wistar Kyoto rats consumed a high LA diet (HLA: 6.21% of energy) or a low LA diet (LLA: 1.44% of energy) for 10 weeks prior to mating and during pregnancy. DNA was iso...

A pipeline for multidimensional confocal analysis of mitochondrial morphology, function and dynamics in pancreatic β-cells.

Live-cell imaging of mitochondrial function and dynamics can provide vital insights into both physiology and pathophysiology, including of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes. However, without super-resolution microscopy and commercial analysis software it is challenging to accurately extract features from dense multi-layered mitochondrial networks, such as those in insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. Motivated by this, we developed a comprehensive pipeline, and associated ImageJ plugin, that enables...


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