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PubMed Journal Database | Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS RSS

08:11 EDT 24th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 196 from Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS

Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnostics, Classification and Therapy.

Pulmonary hypertension is a chronic, incurable disease with poor prognosis. The therapeutic aim is a stabilization of patients showing signs of right heart failure as well as disease progression. A pulmonary hypertension is diagnosed in patients displaying a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of > 25 mmHg in resting state. Invasively measured hemodynamics evaluated by right heart catheterization (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP], pulmonary arterial wedge pressure [PAWP], diastolic pressure gradient...

Anaesthesia in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension.

The perioperative management of patients with pulmonary hypertension requires an in-depth knowledge of the underlying disease, its related pathophysiology, effects of anaesthesia and surgery, as well as the appropriate pharmacotherapy. With respect to preoperative assessment, it is essential to review all available diagnostic findings, evaluate the patient's physical state, and to plan the anaesthetic procedure. Intraoperatively, the prevention of increases in pulmonary resistance and right ventricular deco...

Increased Arterial Blood-Pressure Previous to Elective Surgery - How to Proceed?

Guidelines concerning the widespread disease "essential arterial hypertension" have been available for a long time. Recently, the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (AAGBI) and the British Hypertension Society (BHS) presented a guideline that is focused on the handling of patients suffering arterial hypertension previous to elective surgery. Is there any effort and/or benefit in postponing the operation? Within this guideline we find a concrete statement and recommendation how to deal...

Speckle Tracking Echocardiography - a New Tool for the Intensive Care Unit?

The noninvasive evaluation of cardiac morphology and function by echocardiography is an essential part of modern intensive care therapy. However, this procedure can be challenging and beginners often lack the ability to objectively state the correct global and regional myocardial function. Recent developments allow a semi-automatic deformation (strain) analysis by a couple of more objective respective parametric techniques. Strain describes the change in length of a myocardial segment during the cardiac cyc...

A Fatal Case of Fulminant Necrotising Fasciitis in a 47-Year-Old Male.

Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a rare soft tissue infection characterized by rapid progressive necrosis. Initially patients usually present with nonspecific symptoms like fever, severe pain and skin lesions that progress rapidly. It requires prompt recognition and early treatment with extensive surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics. Mortality despite adequate therapy is high, ranging between 15 and 46%. NF has previously been reported in literature. Some assumed premorbid conditions associated wit...

Anaesthesia in Adult Patients with Obesity.

The prevalence of obesity has substantially increased worldwide during the last ten years. Hence, more anaesthetic procedures will be performed in obese patients in the future and more hospitals have to be prepared for the perioperative treatment of extremely obese patients including medical, technical and organisational issues. These include not only the management of the perioperative problems of adiposity, but also of its numerous concomitant diseases. Besides hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, arterial ...

The Critically Ill Obese Patient: Too Big to Fail?

Worldwide, currently more than 1.9 billion adults are overweight, 650 million of them are obese. Hereby they pose a significant burden on the budget of the health system and on the workload of intensive care units. Mechanical ventilation of critically ill obese patients needs to take into account the characteristic pathologic alterations of their respiratory system. Setting the respirator also requires careful consideration. Cornerstones include judicious preoxygenation, selection of a tidal volume of 6 -...

Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anaesthesia in Obesity.

Obesity is associated with a number of anaesthesia-relevant risks. Regional anaesthesia procedures offer a number of advantages, but they also pose an anaesthetic challenge. For example, the identification of superficial landmarks according to the degree of obesity is difficult to impossible, which reduces the success rate compared to normal weight patients. The use of ultrasound (US) technology with the ability to visualize the target structures may be helpful in performing neuraxial and peripheral blockad...

Stroke Thrombectomy: Anaesthesiologic Aspects.

Ischemic Stroke is a focal neurological deficit based on an acute ischemia. rt-PA lysis and thrombectomy are therapeutic options. Thrombectomy can be performed under local anaesthesia, sedation or general anaesthesia. Early studies clearly favoured sedation compared to general anaesthesia regarding neurological outcome. The following prospective, randomized trials could not detect harmful effects of general anaesthesia. Nonetheless in anaesthesia care of ischemic stroke patients many (patho-)physiological a...

Intrahepatic Hematoma and Pulmonary Embolism in a Young Woman with Oral Contraceptives Complicated by Type II Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Requiring ECMO-Therapy: a Case Report.

A 46-year-old woman on oral contraceptives developed an intrahepatic hematoma due to a benign hepatic tumor. As an incidental finding, a computed tomography showed a pulmonary embolism. Unfractionated heparin was given in a prophylactic dosing in an attempt to balance the risk of further intrahepatic bleeding with that of thrombosis. Ten days later, the patient developed a second pulmonary embolism along with acute right heart failure requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As a sufficient circulation and ...

Cell Salvage in Anesthesiology.

Re-infusion of washed autologous blood cell salvage from the operative field and wound drainages is used as part of blood conservation strategy within Patient Blood Management (PBM). Cell salvage is an effective method to reduce allogeneic blood transfusion. A main advantage of cell salvage is the prevention of storage-related damage to the erythrocytes.Cell salvage has wide applications in surgeries with expected blood loss higher than 500 ml like cardiac, vascular, orthopedic surgery, and by the use of ...

Patient Blood Management: Preoperative Anemia and Case Reports from the Anemia Walk-In Clinic.

Preoperative anemia is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality and represents the strongest predictor for transfusion of red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia is the most frequent form of anemia and could easily be treated by supplementation with iron. Patient Blood Management (PBM) focusses on prevention and management of anemia to optimize the patient and reduce unnecessary allogeneic blood products.

Blood Transfusion: a Guide to Clinical Decision Making.

Nowadays, management of hemotherapy is regulated in Germany by the transfusion act and several guidelines while the transfusing physician is responsible for correct implementation at the bedside. Indications for blood products have to be carefully adapted to the patient's current clinical situation and pre-existing diseases have to be considered as well. Today, for most perioperative elective surgeries, evidence-based transfusion thresholds for packed red blood cell concentrates (RBC) have been defined and ...

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia - an Interdisciplinary Challenge.

Staphylococcus aureus is the second-most-common pathogen among bloodstream infections. Due to a high hospital mortality rate (15 - 40%), frequent complications and recurrences the clinical management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is distinct from bacteremia from other pathogens.

Dysphagia in Tracheostomized Patients after Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation - Become Sensitive to Reduced Pharyngo-Laryngeal Sensitivity.

Independent of the type of critical illness, tracheostomized patients have a high risk of developing a dysphagia. This is potentially life-threatening as it can lead to aspiration and pneumonia. It is therefore essential to perform swallowing diagnostics by means of a bolus dyeing test and/or FEES before oral feeding. Since a physiological airflow through the larynx and adequate subglottic pressure are key components of an effective swallowing act, oralisation should be avoided as far as possible with a blo...

Focused Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Perioperative Setting.

With focused transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) we rapidly and non-invasively receive up-to-date information on a patient's hemodynamic status. These can subsequently influence our therapy and thus our risk management. Postoperatively, TTE has proved its worth as an examination method in the recovery room and in the intensive care unit to promptly diagnose life-threatening causes of circulatory depression. Acute pathology such as a pericardial tamponade or fulminant pulmonary artery embolism can be detect...

Lung Ultrasound for Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

Lung ultrasound is an underrated tool in preclinical emergency situations, intensive care units, ORs and emergency rooms. For certain clinical questions, there is a drastically higher sensitivity in comparison to chest X-ray examinations (sensitivity in pneumothorax diagnostics 86 vs. 28%, specificity 97 vs. 100%. A standardized examination improves the quality of the ultrasound examination and thus the diagnostic value. The article provides basic information on pulmonary ultrasound and aims to highlight th...

Focused Abdominal Ultrasound in Emergency, Perioperative and Intensive Care Medicine.

The rising impact of perioperative sonography is mainly based on mobile high quality ultrasound systems. Relevant bleedings or functional limitations of the abdomen are easy to identify with sonography. The FAST-Concept can be the first access to continue proceedings in ultrasound examination of the abdomen. This paper demonstrates some important ultrasound examinations of the abdomen. The clinical main issues are traumatic and atraumatic bleedings of heart, liver and spleen with haemodynamic instability an...

Coffee, Cigarettes, Chewing Gum - Myths and Facts About Preoperative Fasting.

Consumption of clear liquids (including coffee and orange juice without pulp) up to 2 hours before the start of anaesthesia is unproblematic. Contrary to the recommendations of the professional societies, the intake of beverages containing milk (up to 50% of the total volume) in small quantities seems to be harmless. Drinks containing alcohol can considerably delay emptying of the stomach. Immediate preoperative nicotine consumption has no influence on the risk of aspiration, but short-term nicotine abstine...


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