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Early descriptions of attention in the psychological literature highlighted its interdependence with conscious awareness. As the study of attention developed, consciousness and attention began to be considered separable phenomena, experimentally and theoretically. In recent years, an energetic debate has developed concerning the extent to which the two phenomena are related. One school of thought considers the two to be doubly dissociable, whereas the other considers them to be necessarily linked. In this r...
Here, we analyzed four population-based demographic and health surveys conducted in Bolivia between 1998 and 2016 to understand trends in anemia in children from 6 to 59 months of age by selected sociodemographic characteristics and three categories of altitude: low, medium, and high. Over the 18-year period, the prevalence of anemia was virtually unchanged while that in children living at high altitude increased. Anemia in children living at all three altitude categories is more than 40% and a severe publ...
Development of effective therapeutics for neurological disorders has historically been challenging partly because of lack of accurate model systems in which to investigate disease etiology and test new therapeutics at the preclinical stage. Human stem cells, particularly patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) upon differentiation, have the ability to recapitulate aspects of disease pathophysiology and are increasingly recognized as robust scalable systems for drug discovery. We review advanc...
Social connections are vital to survival throughout the animal kingdom and are dynamic across the life span. There are debilitating consequences of social isolation and loneliness, and social support is increasingly a primary consideration in health care, disease prevention, and recovery. Considering social connection as an "innate need," it is hypothesized that evolutionarily conserved neural systems underlie the maintenance of social connections: alerting the individual to their absence and coordinating e...
System theories postulate that a system needs resources in order to evolve and function as an entirety. According to the actiotope model of giftedness, exogenous and endogenous resources needed to develop excellence include five forms of educational capital (economic, cultural, social, infrastructural, and didactic) and five forms of learning capital (organismic, telic, actional, episodic, and attentional), independent of domain and level of talent development. In three studies, we addressed several blind s...
All the conserved detailed results of evolution stored in DNA must be read, transcribed, and translated via an RNA-mediated process. This is required for the development and growth of each individual cell. Thus, all known living organisms fundamentally depend on these RNA-mediated processes. In most cases, they are interconnected with other RNAs and their associated protein complexes and function in a strictly coordinated hierarchy of temporal and spatial steps (i.e., an RNA network). Clearly, all cellular ...
Evidence for using auditory-motor coupling in neurological rehabilitation to facilitate walking is increasing. However, the distinction between spontaneous and intended coupling and its underlying mechanisms is yet to be investigated. In this study, we include 30 persons with multiple sclerosis and 30 healthy controls (HCs) in an experiment with two sessions in which participants were asked to walk to music with various tempi, matching their preferred walking cadence (PWC) up to 10% above in incremental ste...
Decision making is a fundamental cognitive function, which not only determines our day-to-day choices but also shapes the trajectories of our movements, our lives, and our societies. While immense progress has been made in recent years on our understanding of the mechanisms underlying decision making, research on this topic is still largely split into two halves. Good-based models largely state that decisions are made between representations of abstract value associated with available options; while action-...
A Lagrangian analysis is applied to identify the main moisture source areas associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) making landfall along the west coast of South Africa during the extended austral winter months from 1980 to 2014. The results show that areas that provide the anomalous uptake of moisture can be categorized into four regions: (1) the South Atlantic Ocean between 10°S and 30°S, (2) a clear local maximum in the eastern South Atlantic, (3) a continental source of anomalous uptake to the north ...