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PubMed Journal Database | Annual review of animal biosciences RSS

01:14 EST 12th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 45 from Annual review of animal biosciences

African Swine Fever Epidemiology and Control.

African swine fever is a devastating disease that can result in death in almost all infected pigs. The continuing spread of African swine fever from Africa to Europe and recently to the high-pig production countries of China and others in Southeast Asia threatens global pork production and food security. The African swine fever virus is an unusual complex DNA virus and is not related to other viruses. This has presented challenges for vaccine development, and currently none is available. The virus is extrem...

A Beautiful Life: High Risk-High Payoff in Genetic Science.

This narrative is a personal view of adventures in genetic science and society that have blessed my life and career across five decades. The advances I enjoyed and the lessons I learned derive from educational training, substantial collaboration, and growing up in the genomics age. I parse the stories into six research disciplines my students, fellows, and colleagues have entered and, in some cases, made an important difference. The first is comparative genetics, where evolutionary inference is applied to g...

Use of Mechanistic Nutrition Models to Identify Sustainable Food Animal Production.

To feed people in the coming decades, an increase in sustainable animal food production is required. The efficiency of the global food production system is dependent on the knowledge and improvement of its submodels, such as food animal production. Scientists use statistical models to interpret their data, but models are also used to understand systems and to integrate their components. However, empirical models cannot explain systems. Mechanistic models yield insight into the mechanism and provide guidance...

Regulation of Cell Fate Decisions in Early Mammalian Embryos.

Early embryogenesis is characterized by the segregation of cell lineages that fulfill critical roles in the establishment of pregnancy and development of the fetus. The formation of the blastocyst marks the emergence of extraembryonic precursors, needed for implantation, and of pluripotent cells, which differentiate toward the major lineages of the adult organism. The coordinated emergence of these cell types shows that these processes are broadly conserved in mammals. However, developmental heterochrony an...

Conservation and Management of Salmon in the Age of Genomics.

Salmon were among the first nonmodel species for which systematic population genetic studies of natural populations were conducted, often to support management and conservation. The genomics revolution has improved our understanding of the evolutionary ecology of salmon in two major ways: () Large increases in the numbers of genetic markers (from dozens to 10-10) provide greater power for traditional analyses, such as the delineation of population structure, hybridization, and population assignment, and () ...

Omics Technologies for Profiling Toxin Diversity and Evolution in Snake Venom: Impacts on the Discovery of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Agents.

Snake venoms are primarily composed of proteins and peptides, and these toxins have developed high selectivity to their biological targets. This makes venoms interesting for exploration into protein evolution and structure-function relationships. A single venom protein superfamily can exhibit a variety of pharmacological effects; these variations in activity originate from differences in functional sites, domains, posttranslational modifications, and the formations of toxin complexes. In this review, we dis...

Defining Pollinator Health: Assessing Bee Ecological, Genetic, and Physiological Factors at the Individual, Colony, and Population Levels.

Evidence for global bee population declines has catalyzed a rapidly evolving area of research that aims to identify the factors involved and to effectively assess the status of pollinator populations. The term pollinator health emerged in the literature through efforts to understand causes of bee decline and colony losses, but it lacks a formal definition. In this review, we propose a definition for pollinator health and synthesize the available literature on the application of biomarkers to assess health a...

The Genetics and Epigenetics of Sex Change in Fish.

Fish show extraordinary sexual plasticity, changing sex naturally as part of their life cycle or reversing sex because of environmental stressors. This plasticity shows that sexual fate is not an irreversible process but the result of an ongoing tug-of-war for supremacy between male and female signaling networks. The behavioral, gonadal, and morphological changes involved in this process are well described, yet the molecular events that underpin those changes remain poorly understood. Epigenetic modificatio...

Influenza A Virus Subpopulations and Their Implication in Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development.

The concept of influenza A virus (IAV) subpopulations emerged approximately 75 years ago, when Preben von Magnus described "incomplete" virus particles that interfere with the replication of infectious virus. It is now widely accepted that infectious particles constitute only a minor portion of biologically active IAV subpopulations. The IAV quasispecies is an extremely diverse swarm of biologically and genetically heterogeneous particle subpopulations that collectively influence the evolutionary fitness of...

Introduction.

Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG): Current Achievements and Roadmap.

Functional annotation of genomes is a prerequisite for contemporary basic and applied genomic research, yet farmed animal genomics are deficient in such annotation. To address this, the FAANG (Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes) Consortium is producing genome-wide data sets on RNA expression, DNA methylation, and chromatin modification, as well as chromatin accessibility and interactions. In addition to informing our understanding of genome function, including comparative approaches to elucidate constr...

Canine Cancer Genomics: Lessons for Canine and Human Health.

Dogs are second only to humans in medical surveillance and preventative health care, leading to a recent perception of increased cancer incidence. Scientific priorities in veterinary oncology have thus shifted, with a demand for cancer genetic screens, better diagnostics, and more effective therapies. Most dog breeds came into existence within the last 300 years, and many are derived from small numbers of founders. Each has undergone strong artificial selection, in which dog fanciers selected for many trait...

Meeting Global Feed Protein Demand: Challenge, Opportunity, and Strategy.

Feed protein supplements are one of the most expensive and limiting feed ingredients. This review offers a comprehensive analysis of how the expected expansion of animal production, driven by the rising world population and living standards for more animal-sourced foods, is creating a global shortage of feed protein supply. Because ruminants, chickens, and pigs contribute to 96% of the global supply of animal protein and aquaculture is growing fast, means of meeting the feed protein requirements of these sp...

New Insights on Intermediary Metabolism for a Better Understanding of Nutrition in Teleosts.

The rapid development of aquaculture production throughout the world over the past few decades has led to the emergence of new scientific challenges to improve fish nutrition. The diet formulations used for farmed fish have been largely modified in the past few years. However, bottlenecks still exist in being able to suppress totally marine resources (fish meal and fish oil) in diets without negatively affecting growth performance and flesh quality. A better understanding of fish metabolism and its regulati...

One-Carbon Metabolism: Linking Nutritional Biochemistry to Epigenetic Programming of Long-Term Development.

One-carbon (1C) metabolism comprises a series of interlinking metabolic pathways that include the methionine and folate cycles that are central to cellular function, providing 1C units (methyl groups) for the synthesis of DNA, polyamines, amino acids, creatine, and phospholipids. Sadenosylmethionine is a potent aminopropyl and methyl donor within these cycles and serves as the principal substrate for methylation of DNA, associated proteins, and RNA. We propose that 1C metabolism functions as a key biochemic...

Mammalian Sex Chromosome Structure, Gene Content, and Function in Male Fertility.

Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes. The X chromosome is highly conserved, whereas the Y chromosome varies among species in size, structure, and gene content. Unlike autosomes that contain randomly mixed collections of genes, the sex chromosomes are enriched in testis-biased genes related to sexual development and reproduction, particularly in spermatogenesis and male fertility. This review focuses on how sex chromosome dosage compensation takes place and why meiotic sex chr...

Regulation of Muscle Growth in Early Postnatal Life in a Swine Model.

Skeletal muscle growth during the early postnatal period is rapid in the pig and dependent on the capacity of muscle to respond to anabolic and catabolic stimuli. Muscle mass is driven by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Among these processes, muscle protein synthesis in the piglet is exceptionally sensitive to the feeding-induced postprandial changes in insulin and amino acids, whereas muscle protein degradation is affected only during specific catabolic states. The developmental decl...

Whole-Genome Alignment and Comparative Annotation.

Rapidly improving sequencing technology coupled with computational developments in sequence assembly are making reference-quality genome assembly economical. Hundreds of vertebrate genome assemblies are now publicly available, and projects are being proposed to sequence thousands of additional species in the next few years. Such dense sampling of the tree of life should give an unprecedented new understanding of evolution and allow a detailed determination of the events that led to the wealth of biodiversit...

Tolerance and Innate Immunity Shape the Development of Postpartum Uterine Disease and the Impact of Endometritis in Dairy Cattle.

Bacteria are ubiquitous in the bovine uterus after parturition, but 50 years ago, cows tolerated these bacteria and few animals developed uterine disease. Now, up to 40% of dairy cattle develop postpartum uterine disease. Uterine disease causes infertility by compromising the function of not only the endometrium but also the ovary. Animals defend themselves against pathogens using tolerance and resistance mechanisms. Tolerance is the ability to limit the disease severity induced by a given pathogen burden. ...

The Role of Reproductive Technologies in Amphibian Conservation Breeding Programs.

Anthropogenic environmental change has led to unprecedented rates of species extinction, presenting a major threat to global biodiversity. Among vertebrates, amphibians have been most severely impacted, with an estimated 41% of species now threatened with extinction. In response to this biodiversity crisis, a moral and ethical obligation exists to implement proactive interventionist conservation actions to assist species recovery and decelerate declines. Conservation breeding programs have been established ...

Photoperiodic Regulation of Reproduction in Vertebrates.

Organisms use changes in photoperiod for seasonal reproduction to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms and are therefore excellent models for studying these phenomena. Birds perceive light via deep-brain photoreceptors and long day-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland (PT), which cause local thyroid hormone activation within the mediobasal hypothalamus. The local bioactive thyroid hormone control...

Recent Developments in Breast Muscle Myopathies Associated with Growth in Poultry.

The functional unit in skeletal muscle is the multinucleated myofiber, which is composed of parallel arrays of microfibrils. The myofiber and sarcomere structure of skeletal muscle are established during embryogenesis, when mononuclear myoblast cells fuse to form multinucleated myotubes and develop into muscle fibers. With the myoblasts permanently unable to enter a proliferative state again after they fuse to form the multinucleated myotube, postnatal myofiber growth, muscle homeostasis, and myofiber regen...

Prenatal Steroids and Metabolic Dysfunction: Lessons from Sheep.

Prenatal exposure to excess steroids or steroid mimics can disrupt the normal developmental trajectory of organ systems, culminating in adult disease. The metabolic system is particularly susceptible to the deleterious effects of prenatal steroid excess. Studies in sheep demonstrate that prenatal exposure to excess native steroids or endocrine-disrupting chemicals with steroidogenic activity, such as bisphenol A, results in postnatal development of numerous cardiometabolic perturbations, including insulin r...

Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinctio...

Impact of Micronutrients on the Immune Response of Animals.

Vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) play an important role in regulating and shaping an immune response. Deficiencies generally result in inadequate or dysregulated cellular activity and cytokine expression, thereby affecting the immune response. Decreased levels of natural killer, granulocyte, and phagocytic cell activity and T and B cell proliferation and trafficking are associated with inadequate levels of micronutrients, as well as increased susceptibility to various adverse health conditions, includ...


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