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PubMed Journal Database | Behavioral sciences & the law RSS

03:41 EDT 19th October 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles, all 20 from Behavioral sciences & the law

The myth of school shooters and psychotropic medications.

There has been an assertion in certain parts of the media, especially social media, that the majority of individuals who have engaged in a school shooting were prescribed psychotropic medications prior to the event. To determine if there is any validity to this assertion, the authors of this article reviewed publicly available information regarding individuals involved in "educational shootings" per FBI publications for active shooters from 2000 to 2017. Sources of information included news reports with off...

State of the States: A survey of statutory law, regulations and court rules pertaining to guilty pleas across the United States.

A psycholegal research agenda on guilty pleas is in its nascent stage. Multijurisdictional surveys of related law and policy may advance this research agenda by focusing investigators on the specifics of existing policies and motivating cross-jurisdictional comparisons of diverse policies. We thus conducted a systematic, national survey of statutes, regulations and court rules across the United States pertaining to nine aspects of the guilty plea process, including sentencing differentials, collateral conse...

Documenting suicide risk assessments and proportionate clinical actions to improve patient safety and mitigate legal risk.

Few clinical practices are as important for simultaneously augmenting patient safety and mitigating legal risk as the judicious evaluation and stratification of a patient's risk for suicide, proportionate clinical actions based thereon taken by the healthcare provider, and contemporaneous documentation of the foregoing. In this article, we draw from our combined decades of multidisciplinary experience as a clinical psychologist, forensic psychiatrist, medical malpractice attorney, and clinical psychology tr...

Introduction to this Special Issue on Suicide.

The impact of proficiency testing information and error aversions on the weight given to fingerprint evidence.

Fingerprint examiners regularly participate in tests designed to assess their proficiency. These tests provide information relevant to the weight of fingerprint evidence, but no prior research has directly examined how jurors react to proficiency testing information. Using a nationally representative sample of American adults, we examined the impact of proficiency testing information on the weight given to the opinions of fingerprint examiners by mock jurors considering a hypothetical criminal case. The fin...

Machine learning in suicide science: Applications and ethics.

For decades, our ability to predict suicide has remained at near-chance levels. Machine learning has recently emerged as a promising tool for advancing suicide science, particularly in the domain of suicide prediction. The present review provides an introduction to machine learning and its potential application to open questions in suicide research. Although only a few studies have implemented machine learning for suicide prediction, results to date indicate considerable improvement in accuracy and positive...

Risk assessment and juvenile resentencing: A critical analysis.

Recent United States Supreme Court decisions in Miller v. Alabama (2012) and Montgomery v. Louisiana (2016) have created the need to resentence individuals who received a sentence of mandatory life without parole (LWOP) for offenses committed when they were younger than 18 years old. Neither of these decisions explicitly cite reoffense risk as a sentencing criterion, but a careful reading of the reasoning in these cases suggests that such a risk should be among the considerations addressed by resentencing ...

An update and expansion on the role of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide and Historical Clinical Risk Management-20 in United States case law.

An individual's risk for future violent behavior may be considered in various legal contexts, including civil commitment, criminal sentencing, or suitability for parole. Among the assessment tools forensic evaluators use to assess violence risk are the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG; Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, ) and the Historical Clinical Risk Managment-20 (HCR-20)/Historical Clinical Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 ) (Webster, Douglas, Eaves, & Hart, and Douglas, Hart, Webster, & Belfrag...

Will jurors correct for evidence interdependence in their verdicts? It depends.

Throughout an investigation, pieces of evidence are likely to contaminate one another, yet at trial jurors are expected to treat pieces of evidence as if they are independent. Are jurors able to understand potential evidence contamination? The present study showed mock jurors a videotaped trial simulation. Participants were randomly assigned to hear testimony regarding one piece of evidence, two pieces of independent evidence, or two pieces of interdependent evidence. The study tested the hypothesis that ju...

The relations among animal abuse, psychological disorders, and crime: Implications for forensic assessment.

The confluence of developments in the assessment of animal abuse, the evolution of psychiatric nosology for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, legislative changes involving crimes against non-human animals, and the recent inclusion of crimes against animals in the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System, highlights the critical need for examining the forensic dimensions of animal abuse cases. We provide an overview of the research literature on these topics in the hope that forensic evaluators will h...

Mental state at time of offense in the hot tub: An empirical examination of concurrent expert testimony in an insanity case.

The role of experts and their presentation of testimony in insanity cases remain controversial. In order to decrease possible expert bias associated with this testimony, a number of different alternatives to adversarial presentation have been suggested. Two such alternatives are the use of court-appointed experts and the use of concurrent testimony (or "hot-tubbing"), in which opposing experts provide testimony concurrently and converse with each other directly. An experiment using a sample of venire jurors...

Discerning bias in forensic psychological reports in insanity cases.

This project began as an attempt to develop systematic, measurable indicators of bias in written forensic mental health evaluations focused on the issue of insanity. Although forensic clinicians observed in this study did vary systematically in their report-writing behaviors on several of the indicators of interest, the data are most useful in demonstrating how and why bias is hard to ferret out. Naturalistic data were used in this project (i.e., 122 real forensic insanity reports), which in some ways is a ...

Police officers' volunteering for (rather than being assigned to) Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training: Evidence for a beneficial self-selection effect.

Officers' volunteering for Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training-rather than being assigned-is assumed to be an important, beneficial self-selection bias. This bias remains poorly characterized, though CIT officers are more likely to be female and to have had exposure to the mental health field. We determined whether or not self-selection is beneficial with regard to knowledge, attitudes, and skills, as well as level of force used (i.e., no or low force versus any form of physical force) and disposition o...

Evaluation of CT's ASIST program: Specialized services to divert higher risk defendants.

Some criminal defendants with mental illness may not be referred to traditional mental health jail diversion programs because they have a history of non-compliance with treatment, or complex personal circumstances such as homelessness. To successfully divert such individuals, Connecticut has developed a specialized program called the Advanced Supervision and Intervention Support Team (ASIST), which offers criminal justice supervision in conjunction with mental health treatment and support services. An evalu...

Nature, nurture, and capital punishment: How evidence of a genetic-environment interaction, future dangerousness, and deliberation affect sentencing decisions.

Research has shown that the low-activity MAOA genotype in conjunction with a history of childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of violent behaviors. This genetic-environment (G × E) interaction has been introduced as mitigation during the sentencing phase of capital trials, yet there is scant data on its effectiveness. This study addressed that issue. In a factorial design that varied mitigating evidence offered by the defense [environmental (i.e., childhood maltreatment), genetic, G × E, or ...

Commentary on Community Mental Health and the Common Good.

This article comments on the core question addressed by this Special Issue: "What's good about public sector mental health?" Theoretical, empirical, and programmatic insights derived from the Issue's six article contributions guide the overall commentary. Several points of thematic overlap are featured in these preliminary observations, and these themes are suggestive for directing future research (e.g., citizenship studies) in the field of community mental health. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

"Life's hurried tangled road": A therapeutic jurisprudence analysis of why dedicated counsel must be assigned to represent persons with mental disabilities in community settings.

The right to counsel is a fundamental right for individuals facing criminal processes and involuntary civil commitment. However, individuals with serious mental illnesses are subject to many community proceedings (e.g., being taken by law enforcement to a crisis drop-off center) where counsel is not available. We argue that, unless meaningful counsel is provided in such situations, the cycle of arrest, hospitalization, and stays in the community will continue for these individuals, who are among some of the...

Capitalizing on Scientific Advances to Improve Access to and Quality of Children's Mental Health Care.

The majority of mental health problems begin in childhood or adolescence. The potential benefits of early identification and treatment of such problems are well established, and models of effective mental health interventions for children have proliferated in recent decades. However, barriers in access to care and challenges in assuring delivery of high-quality care significantly limit the public health impact of services for children and families. Specifically, the majority of children who need mental heal...

Juror Decision-making in Death Penalty Sentencing when Presented with Defendant's History of Child Abuse or Neglect.

Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or negle...

Altruistic Lying in an Alibi Corroboration Context: The Effects of Liking, Compliance, and Relationship between Suspects and Witnesses.

Police investigators, judges, and jurors are often very skeptical of alibi witness testimony. To investigate when and why individuals lie for one another, we conducted two studies in which witnesses' support of a false alibi was observed. We varied the level of social pressure exerted on witnesses and the level of affinity between suspect-witness pairs. During a study session purportedly intended to investigate dyadic problem-solving ability, a mock theft was staged. When questioned, participants were provi...


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