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PubMed Journal Database | Behaviour research and therapy RSS

01:59 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 266 from Behaviour research and therapy

Positive cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of depression: A randomized order within-subject comparison with traditional cognitive behavior therapy.

Previous research suggests that a stronger focus on positive emotions and positive mental health may improve efficacy of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Objectives were to compare differential improvement of depressive symptoms (primary outcome), positive affect, and positive mental health indices during positive CBT (P-CBT; CBT in a solution-focused framework, amplified with optional positive psychology exercises) versus traditional, problem-focused CBT (T-CBT). Forty-nine patients with major depressive ...

I feel safe when i know: Contingency instruction promotes threat extinction in high intolerance of uncertainty individuals.

Extinction-resistant threat is considered to be a central feature of pathological anxiety. Reduced threat extinction is observed in individuals with high intolerance of uncertainty (IU). Here we sought to determine whether contingency instructions could alter the course of threat extinction for individuals high in IU. We tested this hypothesis in two identical experiments (Exp 1 n = 60, Exp 2 n = 82) where we recorded electrodermal activity during threat acquisition with partial reinforcement, and e...

Improving Access to psychological therapies for people with severe mental illness (IAPT-SMI): Lessons from the South London and Maudsley psychosis demonstration site.

Implementation of evidence-based cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) remains low in routine services. The United Kingdom Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) initiative aimed to address this issue. The project evaluated whether existing services could improve access to CBTp and demonstrate effectiveness using a systematic approach to therapy provision and outcome monitoring (in a similar way to the Improving Access to Psychological Thera...

A randomised controlled trial of 'MUMentum postnatal': Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in postpartum women.

Refining our research practices in clinical science: Challenges and steps towards solutions.

Patient constructive learning behavior in cognitive therapy: A pathway for improving patient memory for treatment?

Patient memory for treatment is poor and associated with worse outcome. The Memory Support Intervention was designed to improve outcome by enhancing patient memory for treatment. Half of the strategies comprising the Memory Support Intervention (termed constructive memory support strategies) involve therapists inviting patients to construct new ideas, inferences, or connections related to treatment material that go beyond information already presented by therapists. This study investigated the relationship ...

Open trial of a personalized modular treatment for mood and anxiety.

Psychosocial treatments for mood and anxiety disorders are generally effective, however, a number of treated individuals fail to demonstrate clinically-significant change. Consistent with the decades-old aim to identify 'what works for whom,' personalized and precision treatments have become a recent area of interest in medicine and psychology. The present study followed the recommendations of Fisher (2015) to employ a personalized modular model of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Employing the algorithms prov...

Mental imagery as a "motivational amplifier" to promote activities.

Facilitating engagement in rewarding activities is a key treatment target in depression. Mental imagery can increase engagement in planned behaviours, potentially due to its special role in representing emotionally salient experiences. The present study tested the hypothesis that mental imagery promotes motivation and engagement when planning pleasant and rewarding activities. Participants were recruited from a community volunteer panel (N = 72). They self-nominated six activities to complete over the f...

Predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: An exploratory study.

Early decrease in symptoms is a consistent predictor of good treatment outcome across all eating disorders. The current study explored the predictive value of novel early change variables in a transdiagnostic, non-underweight sample receiving 10-session cognitive behavioural therapy.

Autobiographical memory coherence and specificity: Examining their reciprocal relation and their associations with internalizing symptoms and rumination.

Autobiographical memories consist of different features that have been shown to relate to psychological well-being and psychopathology. Two such characteristics show quite some overlap, namely memory coherence and memory specificity, although their association has never been investigated before. In this study, we examined the association between memory coherence and memory specificity in a sample of first-year psychology students. Additionally, to gain more insight into the relation between memory coherence...

A meta-analysis and systematic review of Memory Specificity Training (MeST) in the treatment of emotional disorders.

The tendency to recall events from one's past in a non-specific and overgeneral way has been found to predict the onset and severity of a range of emotional disorders. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) was devised a decade ago in order to target and modify this tendency so as to reduce the symptoms of emotional disorder or to reduce the risk that such disorders might emerge over time. We present a meta-analytical review of research into the effects of MeST on autobiographical memory specificity in the cont...

Direct and indirect effects of perception on generalization gradients.

For more than a century, researchers have attempted to understand why organisms behave similarly across situations. Despite the robust character of generalization, considerable variation in conditioned responding both between and within humans remains a challenge for contemporary generalization models. The current study aims to investigate the extent to which variation in behavior in a context of generalization can be attributed to differences in perception. We combined a fear conditioning and generalizatio...

Peritraumatic unconditioned and conditioned responding explains sex differences in intrusions after analogue trauma.

Higher prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than men may be explained by sex differences in fear learning processes. Initial evidence points to elevated unconditioned and conditioned fear responding as well as to elevated state anxiety in women as potential peritraumatic mechanisms. Using the "conditioned-intrusion-paradigm", which combines differential fear conditioning with the trauma-film paradigm, neutral sounds were presented as predictors of the occurrence (CS+) or non-occurrenc...

Intraindividual change in anxiety sensitivity and alcohol use severity 12-months following smoking cessation treatment.

Although past work has documented reduction in alcohol use severity among smokers following smoking cessation treatment, little is known regarding factors associated with this reduction. The current study sought to examine relations between trajectories of change in anxiety sensitivity and non-targeted alcohol use severity from baseline to one year following smoking cessation treatment. Individuals (n = 386) were adult daily smokers engaged in a smoking cessation treatment study. Measures of alcohol use...

Approach-avoidance modification as an add-on in smoking cessation: A randomized-controlled study.

Biases in information processing are attributed an important role in the maintenance of tobacco dependence. As these biases are not sufficiently taken into account in current treatments, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether clinical outcome can be improved by combining treatment-as-usual (TAU) with Approach-Avoidance Modification Training (AAMT). A two group parallel (1:1) randomized-controlled single-blind study with adult smokers (N = 105) was conducted (DRKS00011406). Participants re...

Between vulnerability and resilience: A network analysis of fluctuations in cognitive risk and protective factors following remission from depression.

Research exploring how cognitive risk- and protective factors relate following remission from internalizing disorders suggests a central role for resilience. However, it remains unclear what constitutes resilience in this context. Furthermore, previous studies have typically relied on cross-sectional data which do not allow to map the temporal dynamics of such relations. Using a seven-day experience sampling period in 85 remitted depressed patients, we examined the interplay between five transdiagnostic vul...

Predictive value of attentional bias for the recurrence of depression: A 4-year prospective study in remitted depressed individuals.

Previous research showed that individuals who were remitted from a depressive disorder displayed heightened attention towards negative adjectives (e.g., worthless). We tested if this attentional bias (AB) is predictive of future recurrence of depressive episodes and/or having depressive symptoms at 2- and 4-year follow-up. We used a longitudinal approach within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and selected participants who were remitted from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 91...

Behavioral medicine and behavioral health research and practice: An introduction to the Special Issue.

The field of behavioral medicine continues to have a major impact on psychological science and public health. Presently, the field of behavioral medicine is undergoing rapid development and continues to evolve as a sub-discipline in allied disciplines. This Special Issue highlights emerging work that contributes to the evolution of behavioral medicine as pertaining to behavioral, psychosocial, and biomedical science integration to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and disease. The present introductory ar...

Attentional engagement with and disengagement from food cues in Anorexia Nervosa.

This study examined differences in food-related Attentional Bias (AB) between patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and adolescents without an eating disorder. AB was assessed with an Attentional Response to Distal versus Proximal Emotional Information (ARDPEI) task that was specifically designed to differentiate between attentional engagement with and attentional disengagement from food. We tested if patients with AN would show less attentional engagement and less difficulty to disengage their attention from...

Predictors of recovery from post-deployment posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in war veterans: The contributions of psychological flexibility, mindfulness, and self-compassion.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major challenge among war veterans. This study assessed the contribution of several interrelated, modifiable psychosocial factors to changes in PTSD symptom severity among combat-deployed post-9/11 Veterans. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of predictors of mental health and functional outcomes among U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war Veterans (N = 117). This study assessed the unique contribution of psychological flexibility, mindfulness, and self-compassio...

Sexual orientation and sex-related substance use: The unexplored role of bisexuality.

Using alcohol and drugs in sexual contexts is associated with negative health consequences, including increased risk for HIV/STIs, sexual victimization, unplanned pregnancies, and overdose. Evidence suggests millions of adults regularly use alcohol in sexual contexts, thus increasing their risk for these consequences. However, no nationally representative estimates exist for rates of regular alcohol and/or drug use in sexual contexts. Additionally, previous studies suggest sexual minority individuals are mo...

The dynamics of social support among suicide attempters: A smartphone-based daily diary study.

Decades of research suggest that social support is an important factor in predicting suicide risk and resilience. However, no studies have examined dynamic fluctuations in day-by-day levels of perceived social support. We examined such fluctuations over 28 days among a sample of 53 adults who attempted suicide in the past year (992 total observations). Variability in social support was analyzed with between-person intraclass correlations and root mean square of successive differences. Multi-level models wer...

Reductions in anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns prospectively mitigate trauma symptom development.

Identifying a malleable pre-trauma risk marker for posttraumatic stress is crucial to preventing symptom development among at-risk individuals. One such candidate is anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), which represents the fear of psychological incapacitation due to anxious arousal. While the extant literature suggests that applying ASCC interventions prior to trauma exposure should mitigate development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), this has not been formally tested. We examined whethe...

Partner criticism during acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder.

Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are married or in marriage-like relationships that could influence treatment process and outcomes. We clarified relations of patient-reported criticism from partners (perceived criticism) and criticism of partners with psychosocial functioning and changes in cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. Partnered outpatients (N = 219) received a 12-week CT protocol and completed measures repeatedly. As hypothesized, perceived criticism and criticism of partner...

Emotional processing deficits in Italian children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder: The role of callous unemotional traits.

Research suggests that callous unemotional (CU) traits are associated with poor emotion recognition due to impairments in attention to relevant emotional cues. To further investigate the mechanisms that underlie CU traits, this study focused on the relationship between levels of CU and children's attention to, and recognition of, facial emotions. Participants were 7- to 10-year-old Italian boys, 35 with a diagnosis of Disruptive Behavior Disorder (age: M = 8.93, SD = 1.35), and 23 healthy male contr...


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