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11:56 EST 13th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 138 from Biophysical reviews

Mechanical regulation of nucleocytoplasmic translocation in mesenchymal stem cells: characterization and methods for investigation.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immune-modulatory and tissue-regenerative properties that make them a suitable and promising tool for cell-based therapy application. Since the bio-chemo-mechanical environment influences MSC fate and behavior, the understanding of the mechanosensors involved in the transduction of mechanical inputs into chemical signals could be pivotal. In this context, the nuclear pore complex is a molecular machinery that is believed to have a key role in force transmission and in nucl...

The mechanobiology of tight junctions.

Tight junctions (TJ) play a central role in the homeostasis of epithelial and endothelial tissues, by providing a semipermeable barrier to ions and solutes, by contributing to the maintenance of cell polarity, and by functioning as signaling platforms. TJ are associated with the actomyosin and microtubule cytoskeletons, and the crosstalk with the cytoskeleton is fundamental for junction biogenesis and physiology. TJ are spatially and functionally connected to adherens junctions (AJ), which are essential for...

Advice for starting a mechanobiology lab.

Starting a new lab in mechanobiology and a new lab in general can be an exciting, yet daunting experience. Depending on your previous position, you have now found yourself with significantly more responsibility in more ways than one. For those considering taking such a career path, I present in this commentary advice that will hopefully be useful and provide food for thought.

Introduction to the European Society of Biomechanics.

Why does epithelia display heterogeneity? Bridging physical and biological concepts.

Recent technological advancements in traction force microscopy.

Piezo1 mechanosensitive channels: what are they and why are they important.

Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are integral membrane proteins which play a crucial role in fast signaling during mechanosensory transduction processes in living cells. They are ubiquitous and old in the evolutionary sense, given their presence in cells from all three kingdoms of life found on Earth, including bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic organisms. As molecular transducers of mechanical force, MS channels are activated by mechanical stimuli exerted on cellular membranes, upon which they rapidly a...

Understanding biochemical processes in the presence of sub-diffusive behavior of biomolecules in solution and living cells.

In order to maintain cellular function, biomolecules like protein, DNA, and RNAs have to diffuse to the target spaces within the cell. Changes in the cytosolic microenvironment or in the nucleus during the fulfillment of these cellular processes affect their mobility, folding, and stability thereby impacting the transient or stable interactions with their adjacent neighbors in the organized and dynamic cellular interior. Using classical Brownian motion to elucidate the diffusion behavior of these biomolecul...

Towards an African Light Source.

Protein-protein interaction modulators: advances, successes and remaining challenges.

Modulating disease-relevant protein-protein interactions (PPIs) using small-molecule inhibitors is a quite indispensable diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in averting pathophysiological cues and disease progression. Over the years, targeting intracellular PPIs as drug design targets has been a challenging task owing to their highly dynamic and expansive interfacial areas (flat, featureless and relatively large). However, advances in PPI-focused drug discovery technology have been reported and a few drugs ...

Comparative structure-function features of Hsp70s of Plasmodium falciparum and human origins.

The heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family of molecular chaperones are crucial for the survival and pathogenicity of the main agent of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum. Hsp70 is central to cellular proteostasis and some of its isoforms are essential for survival of the malaria parasite. In addition, they are also implicated in the development of antimalarial drug resistance. For these reasons, they are thought to be potential drug targets, especially in antimalarial combination therapies. However, their high se...

Summary of case study lecture at Biophysics and Structural Biology at Synchrotrons Workshop Triumph over Adversity: structure of arylamine N-acetyltransferase from M. tuberculosis.

Summary of lecture and practical session at Biophysics and Structural Biology at Synchrotrons workshop: cryo-cooling in macromolecular crystallography-why and how?

A brief history of protein crystallography in Brazil.

Ultraviolet radiation sensors: a review.

Knowledge of when to actively modify outdoor sun protective behaviour is crucial for sun safety and should be based upon personal susceptibility to sunburn and the intensity of the ultraviolet radiation dose during outdoor exposure. To facilitate measurements of dose and exposure, non-scientific and research-grade instruments measuring different exposure parameters of solar radiation are commercially available. These devices have been marketed as weather stations, purpose-built UVI display stations, portabl...

Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction studies on muscle: past, present, and future.

X-ray diffraction is a technique to study the structure of materials at spatial resolutions up to an atomic scale. In the field of life science, the X-ray diffraction technique is especially suited to study materials having periodical structures, such as protein crystals, nucleic acids, and muscle. Among others, muscle is a dynamic structure and the molecular events occurring during muscle contraction have been the main interest among muscle researchers. In early days, the laboratory X-ray generators were u...

Interacting cogs in the machinery of the renin angiotensin system.

Somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE) is well-known for its role in blood pressure regulation and consequently, ACE inhibitors are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. More than 60 years after the discovery of sACE, however, the molecular details of its substrate hydrolysis and inhibition are still poorly understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulations and fine epitope mapping suggest that substrate or inhibitor binding triggers a hinging motion between t...

Biophysical Reviews enters the online world, provides a focus on biophysics in Asia.

The Asian Biophysics Association-supporting biophysics in the greater Asia region.

Inorganic nanomaterials for chemo/photothermal therapy: a promising horizon on effective cancer treatment.

During the last few decades, nanotechnology has established many essential applications in the biomedical field and in particular for cancer therapy. Not only can nanodelivery systems address the shortcomings of conventional chemotherapy such as limited stability, non-specific biodistribution and targeting, poor water solubility, low therapeutic indices, and severe toxic side effects, but some of them can also provide simultaneous combination of therapies and diagnostics. Among the various therapies, the co...

Function-related conformational dynamics of G protein-coupled receptors revealed by NMR.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) function as receptors for various neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, and metabolites. GPCR ligands impart differing degrees of signaling in the G protein and arrestin pathways, in phenomena called biased signaling, and each ligand for a given GPCR has a characteristic level of ability to activate or deactivate its target, which is referred to as its efficacy. The ligand efficacies and biased signaling of GPCRs remarkably affect the therapeutic properties of the ligan...

Frustrated differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most useful cell resources for clinical application in regenerative medicine. However, standardization and quality assurance of MSCs are still essential problems because the stemness of MSCs depends on such factors as the collection method, individual differences associated with the source, and cell culture history. As such, the establishment of culture techniques which assure the stemness of MSCs is of vital importance. One important factor affecting MSCs during...

Introduction to the Korean Biophysical Society (KBPS).

Microbial functional amyloids serve diverse purposes for structure, adhesion and defence.

The functional amyloid state of proteins has in recent years garnered much attention for its role in serving crucial and diverse biological roles. Amyloid is a protein fold characterised by fibrillar morphology, binding of the amyloid-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, insolubility and underlying cross-β structure. Amyloids were initially characterised as an aberrant protein fold associated with mammalian disease. However, in the last two decades, functional amyloids have been described in almost al...

A comment by Prof. Mibel Aguilar-2018 recipient of the Australian Society for Biophysics' McAulay-Hope Prize for Original Biophysics.

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