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PubMed Journal Database | Biotechnology advances RSS

11:51 EDT 22nd July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 164 from Biotechnology advances

Artificial humification of lignin architecture: Top-down and bottom-up approaches.

Humic substances readily identifiable in the environment are involved in several biotic and abiotic reactions affecting carbon turnover, soil fertility, plant nutrition and stimulation, xenobiotic transformation and microbial respiration. Inspired by natural roles of humic substances, several applications of these substances, including organic fertilizers, redox mediators, anti-oxidants, human medicines, environmental remediation and fish feeding, have been developed. The annual market for humic substances ...

Vector-related stratagems for enhanced monoclonal antibody production in mammalian cells.

Provision of effective monoclonal antibody (mAb) based therapeutics requires careful combination of expression, selection and screening, in a suitable cell culture platform. The cell culture platform, in turn, requires high performance expression vectors for consistent and high production of mAb-based therapeutics. Further, the components of the vector need to be optimized via genetic engineering approaches, to exclude non-productive clones, reduce low secretion levels, eliminate improper functioning that a...

Advances in liquid formulations of parenteral therapeutic proteins.

Liquid formulation of therapeutic proteins is a maturing technology. Demand for products that are easy to use in the clinic or that are amenable to self-administration make a ready to use liquid formulation desirable. Most modern liquid formulations have a simple composition; comprising a buffer, a tonicity modifier, a surfactant, sometimes a stabiliser, the therapeutic protein and water. Recent formulations of monoclonal antibodies often use histidine or acetate as the buffer, sucrose or trehalose as the t...

Turning food waste to energy and resources towards a great environmental and economic sustainability: An innovative integrated biological approach.

Food waste (FW) management is a global conundrum because of the rapid population growth and growing economic activity. Currently, incineration and landfill are still the main means for FW management, while their environmental sustainability and economic viability have been in question. Recently, the biological processes including anaerobic digestion, aerobic composting, bioethanol fermentation, feed fermentation etc. have attracted increasing interest with the aims for energy and resource recovery from FW. ...

Betulin and its derivatives as novel compounds with different pharmacological effects.

Betulin (B) and Betulinic acid (BA) are natural pentacyclic lupane-structure triterpenoids which possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. Recent evidence indicates that B and BA have several properties useful for the treatment of metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and neurological disorders. In the current review, we discuss B and BA structures and derivatives and then comprehensively explain their pharmacological effects in relation to various diseases. We also e...

Classification and enzyme kinetics of formate dehydrogenases for biomanufacturing via CO utilization.

The reversible interconversion of formate (HCOO) and carbon dioxide (CO) is catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.17.1.9). This enzyme can be used as a first step in the utilization of CO as carbon substrate for production of high-in-demand chemicals. However, comparison and categorization of the very diverse group of FDH enzymes has received only limited attention. With specific emphasis on FDH catalyzed CO reduction to HCOO, we present a novel classification scheme for FDHs based on protein sequen...

Multi-enzyme systems and recombinant cells for synthesis of valuable saccharides: Advances and perspectives.

Saccharides have recently attracted considerable attention because of their biological functions and potential applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Over the decades, a large amount of enzymes involved in saccharide synthesis have been discovered and characterised with the aid of available genome sequences. The advancement of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies facilitated the artificial pathway design and construction for production of multiple sugars in vitro...

Microbial production of short and medium chain esters: Enzymes, pathways, and applications.

Sustainable production of bulk chemicals is one of the major challenges in the chemical industry, particularly due to their low market prices. This includes short and medium chain esters, which are used in a wide range of applications, for example fragrance compounds, solvents, lubricants or biofuels. However, these esters are produced mainly through unsustainable, energy intensive processes. Microbial conversion of biomass-derived sugars into esters may provide a sustainable alternative. This review provid...

A critical review on use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and their associated binary vectors for plant transformation.

Agrobacterium rhizogenes, along with A. tumefaciens, has been used to affect genetic transformation in plants for many years. Detailed studies conducted in the past have uncovered the basic mechanism of foreign gene transfer and the implication of Ri/Ti plasmids in this process. A number of reviews exist describing the usage of binary vectors with A. tumefaciens, but no comprehensive account of the numerous binary vectors employed with A. rhizogenes and their successful applications has been published till ...

Modular design: Implementing proven engineering principles in biotechnology.

Modular design is at the foundation of contemporary engineering, enabling rapid, efficient, and reproducible construction and maintenance of complex systems across applications. Remarkably, modularity has recently been discovered as a governing principle in natural biological systems from genes to proteins to complex networks within a cell and organism communities. The convergent knowledge of natural and engineered modular systems provides a key to drive modern biotechnology to address emergent challenges a...

Microbial production of cyanophycin: From enzymes to biopolymers.

Cyanophycin is an attractive biopolymer with chemical and material properties that are suitable for industrial applications in the fields of food, medicine, cosmetics, nutrition, and agriculture. For efficient production of cyanophycin, considerable efforts have been exerted to characterize cyanophycin synthetases (CphAs) and optimize fermentations and downstream processes. In this paper, we review the characteristics of diverse CphAs from cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacteria. Furthermore, strategies for cya...

Microbial engineering biotechnologies.

Triterpenoid-biosynthetic UDP-glycosyltransferases from plants.

Triterpenoid saponins are naturally occurring structurally diverse glycosides of triterpenes that are widely distributed among plant species. Great interest has been expressed by pharmaceutical and agriculture industries for the glycosylation of triterpenes. Such modifications alter their taste and bio-absorbability, affect their intra-/extracellular transport and storage in plants, and induce novel biological activities in the human body. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze glyco...

A comparison between the homocyclic aromatic metabolic pathways from plant-derived compounds by bacteria and fungi.

Aromatic compounds derived from lignin are of great interest for renewable biotechnical applications. They can serve in many industries e.g. as biochemical building blocks for bioplastics or biofuels, or as antioxidants, flavor agents or food preservatives. In nature, lignin is degraded by microorganisms, which results in the release of homocyclic aromatic compounds. Homocyclic aromatic compounds can also be linked to polysaccharides, tannins and even found freely in plant biomass. As these compounds are of...

The updated definition of prebiotic expands the range of potential applications in which emerging xylooligosaccharides (XOS) can be used. It has been demonstrated that XOS exhibit prebiotic effects at lower amounts compared to others, making them competitively priced prebiotics. As a result, the industry is focused on developing alternative approaches to improve processes efficiency that can meet the increasing demand while reducing costs. Recent advances have been made towards greener and more efficient pr...

Plant oil based industrial oleochemistry leads to a large side stream of crude glycerol, which offers itself as a low price carbon source for microbial chemical production. Compared to sugar, glycerol is more reduced and less microorganisms are able to use it as carbon source. An interesting feature of glycerol conversion is that many organisms cannot use it as carbon source at all, but they readily use it as electron sink under anaerobic conditions. In any case the number of pathways by which glycerol ente...

Soft and flexible material-based affinity sensors.

Recent advances in biosensors and point-of-care (PoC) devices are poised to change and expand the delivery of diagnostics from conventional lateral-flow assays and test strips that dominate the market currently, to newly emerging wearable and implantable devices that can provide continuous monitoring. Soft and flexible materials are playing a key role in propelling these trends towards real-time and remote health monitoring. Affinity biosensors have the capability to provide for diagnosis and monitoring of ...

RNAi therapeutic and its innovative biotechnological evolution.

Recently, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission (EC) approved Alnylam Pharmaceuticals' RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic, ONPATTRO™ (Patisiran), for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis in adults. This is the first RNAi therapeutic all over the world, as well as the first FDA-approved treatment for this indication. As a milestone event in RNAi pharmaceutical industry, it means, for the first time, people have brok...

Sensing and transduction of nutritional and chemical signals in filamentous fungi: Impact on cell development and secondary metabolites biosynthesis.

Filamentous fungi respond to hundreds of nutritional, chemical and environmental signals that affect expression of primary metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. These signals are sensed at the membrane level by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs contain usually seven transmembrane domains, an external amino terminal fragment that interacts with the ligand, and an internal carboxy terminal end interacting with the intracellular G protein. There is a great variety of GPCRs in filamento...

Microbial production of sialic acid and sialylated human milk oligosaccharides: Advances and perspectives.

Sialic acids (SAs) are important functional sugars, and monomers of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (sialylated HMOs or sialyllactoses), which are crucial for improving infant development and can facilitate infant brain development, maintain brain health, and enhance immunity. The most common form of SA is N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), and the main forms of sialyllactoses are 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) and 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL). As functional food additive, the demand for NeuAc and sialyllactoses...

Editorial for special issue of biorefinery.

Engineering enzyme access tunnels.

Enzymes are efficient and specific catalysts for many essential reactions in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. Many times, the natural enzymes do not display the catalytic efficiency, stability or specificity required for these industrial processes. The current enzyme engineering methods offer solutions to this problem, but they mainly target the buried active site where the chemical reaction takes place. Despite being many times ignored, the tunnels and channels connecting the environment wit...

Biotechnological potential of engineering pathogen effector proteins for use in plant disease management.

A key component in the management of many diseases of crops is the use of plant disease resistance genes. However, the discovery and then sequence identification of these plant genes is challenging, whereas the characterization of the molecules that they recognize, the effector/avirulence products in pathogens, is often considerably more straight forward. Effectors are small proteins secreted by pathogens that can play major roles in modulating a plant's defense against attack. Effectors can be used to guid...

Anti-cancer effects of polyphenols via targeting p53 signaling pathway: updates and future directions.

The anticancer effects of polyphenols are ascribed to several signaling pathways including the tumor suppressor gene tumor protein 53 (p53). Expression of endogenous p53 is silent in various types of cancers. A number of polyphenols from a wide variety of dietary sources could upregulate p53 expression in several cancer cell lines through distinct mechanisms of action. The aim of this review is to focus the significance of p53 signaling pathways and to provide molecular intuitions of dietary polyphenols in ...

Advances in phytochemical delivery systems for improved anticancer activity.

Natural compounds have significant anticancer pharmacological activities, but often suffer from low bioavailability and selectivity that limit therapeutic use. The present work critically analyzes the latest advances on drug delivery systems designed to enhance pharmacokinetics, targeting, cellular uptake and efficacy of anticancer phytoconstituents. Various phytochemicals, including flavonoids, resveratrol, celastrol, curcumin, berberine and camptothecins, carried by liposomes, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions...


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