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PubMed Journal Database | Bone RSS

03:29 EDT 24th August 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 487 from Bone

Dimorphism in axial and appendicula dimensions, cortical and trabecular microstructure and matrix mineral density in Chinese and Caucasian women.

Appendicular fractures are less common in Chinese than Caucasian women. Bone mineral density (BMD) is lower, not higher than in Caucasians because Chinese have smaller appendicular dimensions than Caucasians. However, smaller bones may offset the liability to fracture by being assembled with a more robust microstructure. We hypothesized that Chinese assemble an appendicular skeleton with a thicker, less porous and more mineralized cortex that is less deteriorated in advanced age than in Caucasians.

MicroCT analyses of mouse femoral neck architecture.

Hip fractures at the femoral neck are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, but aside from biomechanical strength testing, little is known about femoral neck architecture in mice. Procedures were optimized to analyze high-resolution (6 μm voxel size) microCT scans of the mouse femoral neck to provide bone mass and architectural information. Similar to histomorphometric observations in rats, the boundary between cortical and trabecular bone is difficult to identify in the mouse femoral mid-neck and th...

Age-related histological changes in calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in femoral heads from healthy humans.

Age is the most important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). It is suggested that changes in subchondral bone and calcified cartilage may occur in early OA. Therefore, the aim was to investigate age-related changes in the femoral head composition. We hypothesise that the thickness of the subchondral bone plate decreases with age, while the thickness of the calcified cartilage increases with age as seen in early-stage OA.

Novel ActRIIB ligand trap increases muscle mass and improves bone geometry in a mouse model of severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) caused by mutations affecting the extracellular matrix protein collagen type I is characterized by fragile bones and low muscle mass and function. Activin A and myostatin, members of the TGF-β superfamily, play a key role in the control of muscle mass and in muscle-bone communication. Here we investigated activin A/myostatin signaling in a mouse model of severe dominant OI, Col1a1mouse, and the effect of activin A/myostatin inhibition by a soluble activin receptor IIB receptor,...

Osteocalcin affects bone mineral and mechanical properties in female mice.

Osteocalcin is one of the most abundant noncollagenous proteins in bone. Phenotypes of osteocalcin knock-out mice (OC-/-) may vary on different backgrounds and with sex. Previous studies using adult female (OC-/-) mice on a mixed genetic background (129/B6) showed osteocalcin inhibited bone formation leading to weaker bone in wild-type (OC+/+). Yet on a pure (B6) genetic background male mice revealed osteocalcin improved fracture resistance and OC-/- bones were more prone to fracture. Osteocalcin is decreas...

Resistive exercise in astronauts on prolonged spaceflights provides partial protection against spaceflight-induced bone loss.

Bone loss in astronauts during spaceflight may be a risk factor for osteoporosis, fractures and renal stone formation. We previously reported that the bisphosphonate alendronate, combined with exercise that included an Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), can prevent or attenuate group mean declines in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured soon after ~ 6-month spaceflights aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is unclear however if the beneficial effects on postflight aBMD were due to ...

Ex vivo gene therapy using human bone marrow cells overexpressing BMP-2: "Next-day" gene therapy versus standard "two-step" approach.

Traditionally, ex vivo gene therapy involves a two-step approach, with culture expansion of cells prior to transduction and implantation. We have tried to simplify this strategy and eliminate the time and cost associated with culture expansion, by introducing "next-day" regional gene therapy using human bone marrow cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a lentiviral vector (LV) carrying the cDNA for BMP-2 can transduce freshly isolated human BM cells, leading to abundant BMP production an...

A retrospective bicenter comparative study of surgical outcomes of atypical femoral fracture: Potential effect of teriparatide on fracture healing and callus formation.

The main purpose of the present study was to assess the radiologic effect of teriparatide on fracture healing, including union rate, union time, and callus formation, by quantitative measurements using serial follow-up X-ray imaging examinations in patients with complete atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) treated using closed intramedullary nailing.

Are we crying Wolff? 3D printed replicas of trabecular bone structure demonstrate higher stiffness and strength during off-axis loading.

Roux's principle of bone functional adaptation postulates that bone tissue, and particularly trabecular bone tissue, responds to mechanical stimuli by adjusting (modeling) its architecture accordingly. Hence, it predicts that the new modeled trabecular structure is mechanically improved (stiffer and stronger) in line with the habitual in vivo loading direction. While previous studies found indirect evidence to support this theory, direct support was so far unattainable. This is attributed to the fact that e...

Vitamin D sterols increase FGF23 expression by stimulating osteoblast and osteocyte maturation in CKD bone.

Impaired osteoblast and osteocyte maturation contribute to mineralization defects and excess FGF23 expression in CKD bone. Vitamin D sterols decrease osteoid accumulation and increase FGF23 expression; these agents also increase osteoblast maturation in vitro but a link between changes in bone cell maturation, bone mineralization, and FGF23 expression in response to vitamin D sterols has not been established. We evaluated unmineralized osteoid accumulation, osteocyte maturity markers (FGF23: early osteocyte...

Activation of G signaling by Pasteurella multocida toxin inhibits the osteoblastogenic-like actions of Activin A in C2C12 myoblasts, a cell model of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

The human disease fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and highly disabling disorder of extensive heterotopic bone growth that is caused by a point mutation (R206H) in the activation domain of Alk2, a BMP (bone morphogenic protein) type 1 receptor. The mutation leads to extensive BMP-signaling induced by Activin A, which is normally an antagonist for wildtype receptors, resulting in excessive and uncontrolled bone formation. Here, we studied the effects of Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT),...

Spontaneous cellular vibratory motions of osteocytes are regulated by ATP and spectrin network.

Vibration at high frequency has been demonstrated to be anabolic for bone and embedded osteocytes. The response of osteocytes to vibration is frequency-dependent, but the mechanism remains unclear. Our previous computational study using an osteocyte finite element model has predicted a resonance effect involving in the frequency-dependent response of osteocytes to vibration. However, the cellular spontaneous vibratory motion of osteocytes has not been confirmed. In the present study, the cellular vibratory ...

The effects of volar locking plates for distal radius fractures on the image quality of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has enabled us to observe changes of bone microstructure during fracture healing. However, a method of analyzing the healing process after osteosynthesis has yet to be established due to implant artifacts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of volar locking plates for distal radius fractures on the image quality of HR-pQCT.

Lumbar bone mineral asymmetry in elite cricket fast bowlers.

Bone responds to mechanical loading by increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and/or bone area to enhance bone strength at the site of the greatest strain. Such localised adaptation has not been demonstrated at the spine. The aim of this study is to determine if BMD and/or bone mineral content (BMC) differs between dominant (ipsilateral to bowling/throwing arm) and non-dominant sides of the vertebrae in cricket fast bowlers, and whether this asymmetry differs according to stress fracture or disc injury histo...

Transcriptional profiling of intramembranous and endochondral ossification after fracture in mice.

Bone fracture repair represents an important clinical challenge with nearly 1 million non-union fractures occurring annually in the U.S. Gene expression differs between non-union and healthy repair, suggesting there is a pattern of gene expression that is indicative of optimal repair. Despite this, the gene expression profile of fracture repair remains incompletely understood. In this work, we used RNA-seq of two well-established murine fracture models to describe gene expression of intramembranous and endo...

A novel transgenic murine model with persistently brittle bones simulating osteogenesis imperfecta type I.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I caused by the null allele of COL1A1 gene is in the majority in clinical OI cases. Currently, heterozygous Mov-13 mice generated by virus insertion in the first intron of col1a1 is the exclusive model to modulate OI type I, in spite of the gradually recovered bone mineral and mechanical properties. A newly designed heterozygous col1a1 OI mouse was produced in the present study by partial exons knockout (exon 2-exon 5, 365 nt of mRNA) using CRISPR/Cas9 system. The deletio...

Chronic prolonged hyponatremia and risk of hip fracture in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease.

Chronic prolonged hyponatremia (CPH) is a risk factor for hip fracture in the general population. Whether CPH increases hip fracture risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is unknown.

3D analysis of the osteonal and interstitial tissue in human radii cortical bone.

Human cortical bone has a complex hierarchical structure that is periodically remodelled throughout a lifetime. This microstructure dictates the mechanical response of the tissue under a critical load. If only some structural features, such as the different porosities observed in bone, are primarily studied, then investigations may not fully consider the osteonal systems in three-dimensions (3D). Currently, it is difficult to differentiate osteons from interstitial tissue using standard 3D characterization ...

A review on computer modeling of bone piezoelectricity and its application to bone adaptation and regeneration.

Bone is a hierarchical, multiphasic and anisotropic structure which in addition possess piezoelectric properties. The generation of piezoelectricity in bone is a complex process which has been shown to play a key role both in bone adaptation and regeneration. In order to understand the complex biological, mechanical and electrical interactions that take place during these processes, several computer models have been developed and used to test hypothesis on potential mechanisms behind experimental observatio...

Haversian remodeling corresponds to load frequency but not strain magnitude in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis) skeleton.

One way bone adapts to its mechanical environment is by Haversian remodeling, a repair process in which existing bone is resorbed and replaced by new bone. Haversian remodeling forms interconnected, cylindrical structures called secondary osteons. The amount of remodeling that occurs is related to the nature of mechanical loading and accrual of microdamage, but it is uncertain whether habitual loads of high magnitude versus high frequency result in more remodeling. The answer to this question is important i...

Periostin and sclerostin levels in individuals with spinal cord injury and their relationship with bone mass, bone turnover, fracture and osteoporosis status.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces an acute alteration in bone metabolism. Although the aetiology of the bone disturbances is not precisely known, immobilisation reduces mechanical loading and the morphology of osteocytes, which are the primary mechanosensors. Periostin and sclerostin are secreted mostly by osteocytes and are involved in bone's mechanical response.

A biomimetic self-assembling peptide promotes bone regeneration in vivo: A rat cranial defect study.

Rationally designed, pH sensitive self-assembling β-peptides (SAPs) which are capable of reversibly switching between fluid and gel phases in response to environmental triggers are potentially useful injectable scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering applications. SAP P-4 (CHCOQQRFEWEFEQQNH) has been shown to nucleate hydroxyapatite mineral de novo and has been used in dental enamel regeneration. We hypothesised that addition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) would enhance the in vivo effects of P-4 in...

Stress concentrations and bone microdamage: John Currey's contributions to understanding the initiation and arrest of cracks in bone.

The microarchitecture of bone tissue presents many features that could act as stress concentrators for the initiation of bone microdamage. This was first identified by John Currey in a seminal paper in 1962 in which he presented the mechanical and biological evidence for stress concentrations at the bone surface, within the bone through the action of stiffness differentials between architectural features including between lamellae, and at the level of the lacunar and canalicular walls. Those early observati...

Increased risk of mortality after postoperative infection in hip fracture patients.

Postoperative infection is a common complication in hip fracture patients and the risk appears to have increased during the last decade. However, the impact of infection on mortality after hip fracture surgery remains unclear.

Satb2 regulates proliferation and nuclear integrity of pre-osteoblasts.

Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (Satb2) is a matrix attachment region (MAR) binding protein. Satb2 impacts skeletal development by regulating gene transcription required for osteogenic differentiation. Although its role as a high-order transcription factor is well supported, other roles for Satb2 in skeletal development remain unclear. In particular, the impact of dosage sensitivity (heterozygous mutations) and variance on phenotypic severity is still not well understood. To further investigate m...


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