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PubMed Journal Database | Brain research RSS

14:51 EDT 14th October 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 752 from Brain research

An age- and sex-dependent role of catecholaminergic neurons in the control of breathing and hypoxic chemoreflex during postnatal development.

The respiratory system undergoes significant development during the postnatal phase. Maturation of brainstem catecholaminergic (CA) neurons is important for the control and modulation of respiratory rhythmogenesis, as well as for chemoreception in early life. We demonstrated an inhibitory role for CA neurons in CO chemosensitivity in neonatal and juvenile male and female rats, but information regarding their role in the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) is lacking. We evaluated the contribution of brainste...

Frontal cortex selectively overrides auditory processing to bias perception for looming sonic motion.

Rising intensity sounds signal approaching objects traveling toward an observer. A variety of species preferentially respond to looming over receding auditory motion, reflecting an evolutionary perceptual bias for recognizing approaching threats. We probed the neural origins of this stark perceptual anisotropy to reveal how the brain creates privilege for auditory looming events. While recording neural activity via electroencephalography (EEG), human listeners rapidly judged whether dynamic (intensity varyi...

Association of medial corticostriatal regions with amphetamine-induced emission of 50 kHz vocalizations as studied by Zif-268 expression in the rat brain.

Behavioural sensitization of locomotion and 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) injections in rats has been extensively demonstrated. These two behaviours appear dissociable in their sensitization patterns and are thought to be reflective of underlying emotional states of the organism. Although AMPH is often used to induce 50 kHz USVs there is little research to date on the extent of cortical and subcortical forebrain region involvement in 50 kHz call production asso...

Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Toxicity of Baicalin Liposome on Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury rats via intranasal administration.

Baicalin (BA) is a major active component from the traditional Chinese medicine, which has been widely used to treat brain diseases. Previously, the baicalin liposome (BA-LP) was prepared to improve its low bioavailability. However, the existence of the obstacles such as the blood-brian-barrier (BBB) still make it difficult to enter brain effectively. Meanwhile, many reports have shown that drugs can be transported into brain through intranasal administration without the BBB. Therefore, we aim to explore th...

Increases in compulsivity, inflammation, and neural injury in HIV transgenic rats with escalated methamphetamine self-administration under extended-access conditions.

The abuse of stimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), is associated with treatment non-compliance, a greater risk of viral transmission, and the more rapid clinical progression of immunological and central nervous system human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The behavioral effects of METH in the setting of HIV remain largely uncharacterized. We used a state-of-the-art paradigm of the escalation of voluntary intravenous drug self-administration in HIV transgenic (Tg) and wildtype rats. The rats were...

The Roles of Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 13 in Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

Spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCII) remains an unresolved complication and its underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we studied the role of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13) in a rat model of SCII. We examined the time course and cellular distribution of CXCL13 protein in rats after SCII. The effects of siRNA targeting CXCL13 or C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) in SCII were also investigated. Neurological function, histological assessment, and disrupti...

Regulating PMP22 Expression as a Dosage Sensitive Neuropathy Gene.

Structural variation in the human genome has emerged as a major cause of disease as genomic data have accumulated. One of the most common structural variants associated with human disease causes the heritable neuropathy known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1A. This 1.4 Mb duplication causes nearly half of the CMT cases that are genetically diagnosed. The PMP22 gene is highly induced in Schwann cells during development, although its precise role in myelin formation and homeostasis is still under a...

Apelin-36 Mediates Neuroprotective Effects by Regulating oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis in MPTP-induced Parkinson's Disease model mice.

Parkinson's disease (PD), a common human neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the presence of intraneuronal Lewy bodies composed principally of abnormal aggregated and post-translationally modified α-synuclein. In our previous research, we have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of Apelin-36, a neuroendocrine peptide in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin(MPTP)-lesioned PD model mice. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanism of Apelin-36 against M...

Continuous theta burst stimulation provides neuroprotection by accelerating local cerebral blood flow and inhibiting inflammation in a mouse model of acute ischemic stroke.

Acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause of disability with limited therapeutic options. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) has recently been shown to be a promising noninvasive therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke patients. Here, we investigated the protective effects of cTBS following acute infarction using a photothrombotic stroke (PTS) model in the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with cTBS resulted in a reduction in the volume of the infarct...

Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against oxygen glucose deprivation induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activation of AMPK in SH-SY5Y cells with 3D gelatin scaffold.

Ischemic stroke arising from the sudden blockage of arteries in the brain, is a common and serious brain damaging problem worldwide, often leading to disability or death. The oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model was created to improve understanding of hypoxia- and hypoglycemia-induced neuronal cell injury, and provide an in vitro surrogate to assess novel treatments for cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical neuroprotective regulator of energy homeostasis, metabolism ...

Neuroinflammation induced by secretion of acetylated HMGB1 from activated microglia in hippocampi of mice following chronic cold exposure.

Stress is a nonspecific response to adverse circumstances and chronic stress can destroy homeostasis, leading to various primary diseases. Although chronic cold stress is becoming increasingly important for individuals living or working in extreme environments, the risk of associated disorders of the central nervous system remains unstudied. Here, male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a temperature of 4 °C, for three hours each day for one, two or three weeks. Glial cell activation, neuronal structure, and neu...

Mesenchymal stem cells and treadmill trainnig enhance function and promote tissue preservation after spinal cord injury.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered a serious neurological disorder that can lead to severe sensory, motor and autonomic deficits. In this work, we investigated whether cell therapy associated with physical activity after mouse SCI could promote morphological and functional outcomes, using a lesion model established by our group. Mesenchymal stem cells (8x10cells/2µl) or DMEM (2µl), were injected in the epicenter of the lesion at 7 days after SCI, and the mice started the moderate treadmill training 14...

Individual differences in encoded neural representations within cortical speech production network.

When two individuals view the same item, they do not necessarily perceive an item in the same way. If an individual is presented with a stimulus to be recalled later, the information that is encoded is dependent on the features of the stimulus to which one attends. Past studies have shown that, on the group level, verbal and visual information (e.g., words and pictures) are encoded in disparate regions of the brain. However, this account conflates external and internal representational formats, and it also ...

Lateralized cognitive functions in Parkinson's patients: a behavioral approach for the early detection of sustained attention deficits.

Parkison's disease (PD) has been described as a disconnection syndrome. The lateralized motor onset of symptoms indicates asymmetrical dysregulation of the dopamine production in the substantia nigra, in the striatum and, in turns, a dysfunction of the basal ganglia and of the connected cortical areas. However, lateralization of cognitive symptoms is less clear, and it would be important to determine whether lateralized motor deficits are associated with cognitive impairments typically documented following ...

Effects of uninterrupted sinusoidal LF-EMF stimulation on LTP induced by different combinations of TBS/HFS at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 of synapses.

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important aspect of synaptic plasticity and is one of the main mechanisms involved in memory. Low-frequency electromagnetic fields (LF-EMFs) such as transcranial magnetic stimulation are emerging neuromodulation tools for the regulation of LTP. However, whether LF-EMFs have different effects on different types of LTP has not yet been verified. Herein, we studied the regulatory effects of 15 Hz / 2 mT sinusoidal magnetic field as pre-magnetic stimulation on several types of...

Opposed Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) expression in the prefrontal cortex vs. nucleus accumbens is associated with alcohol consumption in male rats.

Abusive alcohol consumption is a health problem, worldwide. There is extensive literature indicating that cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) plays a crucial role in mediating alcohol's reward effects. Maternal care deprivation (MCD) is a reliable rodent model of early life stress that leads to high levels of anxiety and alterations in motivation, which may increase vulnerability to alcohol consumption. The present study researched whether anxiety-like behaviors and the level of motivation for a natural reward, a...

Region-specific adenosinergic modulation of the slow-cortical rhythm in urethane-anesthetized rats.

Slow cortical rhythm (SCR) is a rhythmic alternation of UP and DOWN states during sleep and anesthesia. SCR-associated slow waves reflect homeostatic sleep functions. Adenosine accumulating during prolonged wakefulness and sleep deprivation (SD) may play a role in the delta power increment during recovery sleep. NREM sleep is a local, use-dependent process of the brain. In the present study, direct effect of adenosine on UP and DOWN states was tested by topical application to frontal, somatosensory and visu...

Oleic acid is a potent inducer for lipid droplet accumulation through its esterification to glycerol by diacylglycerol acyltransferase in primary cortical astrocytes.

Astrocytes exhibit an important role in neural lipid metabolism for the regulation of energy balance to supply fatty acids (FAs) and ketone bodies to other neural cells. Lipid droplets (LDs) consisting of neutral- and phospho-lipids increase in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. However, the role of LDs and its lipid source remains largely unexplored. Here, we found that oleic acid (OA) was a potent inducer of astrocytic LD accumulatio...

The effect of curcumin on cognition in Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging: A systematic review of pre-clinical and clinical studies.

Alzheimer's disease constitutes a growing cause of cognitive impairment in aging population. Given that current treatments do not produce the desired therapeutic effects, the need for finding alternative biological and pharmacological approaches is critical. Accumulating evidence suggests inflammatory and oxidative stress responses as potential causal factors of cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging. Curcumin has received increased interest due to its unique molecular structure that...

Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reverses diabetes-related impairments in long-term potentiation induction in hippocampal dentate gyrus granular cells: an in vivo study.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts as an antioxidant and exerts neuroprotective effects. Accordingly, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of CoQ10 on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=8 per group) as follows and treated for 90 days: the control, control+ low dose of CoQ10 (100 mg/k...

Recombinant CC16 regulates inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy via the inhibition of the p38MAPK signaling pathway in the brain of neonatal rats with sepsis.

Sepsis has a high in clinic neonatal mortality. Moreover, a considerable number of children's brains remain affected even after the treatment of sepsis and it often leaves sequelae. Therefore, early intervention for sepsis is of considerable significance. Recent studies have shown that Club cell protein (CC16) is closely related to the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, which can regulate inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy during sepsis. Thus, we analyzed th...

Low-dose intranasal insulin improves cognitive function and suppresses the development of epilepsy.

Intranasal insulin exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of neurological diseases. Whether intranasal insulin affects epileptic activity and whether it has neuroprotective effects in epileptic diseases is however still unknown. In this study we show that low-dose intranasal insulin inhibited kainicacid (KA)- or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced acute seizures and reduced epileptic discharge activities in mice, potentially by alleviating the increase in seizure-induced glutamate in the hippocampus. Mean...

Reducing PRLR expression and JAK2 activity results in an increase in BDNF expression and inhibits the apoptosis of CA3 hippocampal neurons in a chronic mild stress model of depression.

Patients suffering from depression most commonly present with symptoms associated with the autonomic nervous system. Despite the satisfactory results achieved following treatment with vagus nerve stimulation and drug treatment, recurrence is a common occurrence in many patients. As described in numerous studies, prolactin receptor (PRLR) has been identified as an anxiolytic and anti-depressant factor in depression. However, the effect of PRLR on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression remains to be tho...

"Human Brain Development through the Lens of Cerebral Organoid Models".

The brain is one of the most complex organs in the body, which emerges from a relatively simple set of basic 'building blocks' during early development according to complex cellular and molecular events orchestrated through a set of inherited instructions. Innovations in stem cell technologies have enabled modelling of neural cells using two- and three- dimensional cultures. In particular, cerebral ('brain') organoids have taken the center stage of brain development models that have the potential for provid...

Dexamethasone Impairs Neurofunctional Recovery in Rats Following Traumatic Brain Injury by Reducing Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Angiogenesis.

The administration of glucocorticoids (GCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. Clinical evidence reveals the deleterious effects of GCs, but the mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that GCs impair wound healing by affecting endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function and inhibiting angiogenesis after skin injury. Thus, we hypothesize that the central deleterious effect of GCs is associated with reduced EPCs and angiogenesis after TBI. Using a controlled cortical impact mode...


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