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The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and books.
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Combination therapy with dipyridamole and clopidogrel in stroke prevention and long-term outcomes in aspirin-intolerant patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and previous stroke are unknown. This nationwide study analyzed the impact of dipyridamole and clopidogrel on secondary stroke prevention and long-term outcomes in aspirin-intolerant stroke patients after AMI.
Growing evidence indicates that B cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). B cells occupy distinct central nervous system (CNS) compartments in MS, including the cerebrospinal fluid and white matter lesions. Also, it is now known that, in addition to entering the CNS, B cells can circulate into the periphery via a functional lymphatic system. Data suggest that the role of B cells in MS mainly involves their in situ activation in demyelinating lesions, leading to altered pro- and...
Multifocal visual evoked potential (MF-VEP) assesses a wider visual field than full-field VEP (FF-VEP) and potentially offers a more precise analysis of optic nerve injury and repair following optic neuritis. MF-VEP may offer advantages over FF-VEP as an endpoint in clinical trials of remyelinating therapies.
An Online First version of this article was made available online at http://link.springer.com/journal/40263/onlineFirst/page/1 on 24 August 2018. An error was subsequently identified in the article, and the following correction should be noted.
Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus) is a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of adults with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) or primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). In the two identically designed, 96-week OPERA I and II trials in patients with RMS, ocrelizumab significantly reduced annualized relapse rates versus interferon β-1a. In the ≥ 120-week ORATORIO trial in patients with PPMS, ocrelizumab significantly reduced the risk of ≥ 12-week confirmed disability prog...
Cognitive impairment affects many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). NeuroTrax, a computerized cognitive screen that can be administered during routine clinical care, provides a consistent, validated, objective cognitive profile measure with a global cognitive score (GCS) and seven individual domain scores. Natalizumab is an efficacious therapy for relapsing MS, demonstrating reductions in disability worsening and MS disease activity measured by magnetic resonance imaging.
In the 1990s, the first disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) were injectable immunomodulatory (IM) drugs, including four different interferon-β preparations and glatiramer acetate. Since 2000, more than 15 immunosuppressant (IS) drugs have been used, with a more or less specific action on inflammation. These include monoclonal antibodies targeting CTL4, the integrin receptor, the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor, CD19, CD20, CD52, and the sphingosine 1 phosphate family. The associatio...
Although antipsychotics are used to treat Tourette syndrome, there have been reports of paradoxical induction of tics by first- and second-generation antipsychotics.
Amantadine extended-release (ER) capsules (GOCOVRI) are approved in the USA for the treatment of dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving levodopa-based therapy, with or without concomitant dopaminergic medications. With a recommended dosage of 274 mg once daily at bedtime, this new formulation of amantadine allows a more gradual time to peak plasma amantadine concentration and higher drug concentrations in the morning and throughout the day, the time period when levodopa-induced dysk...
ALZ-801 is an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomer formation in clinical development for Alzheimer's disease (AD). ALZ-801 is a prodrug of tramiprosate with improved pharmacokinetic properties and gastrointestinal tolerability. During clinical studies, we discovered that the primary metabolite of tramiprosate and its prodrug ALZ-801, 3-sulfopropanoic acid (3-SPA), is an endogenous molecule in the human brain and present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD and other...
Hepatotoxicity may be a concern when prescribing antidepressants. Nevertheless, this risk remains poorly understood for serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs: venlafaxine, milnacipran, duloxetine) and 'other antidepressants' (mianserin, mirtazapine, tianeptine and agomelatine), particularly in comparison with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs: fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, escitalopram), which are by far the most commonly prescribed antidepressant...
Glatiramer acetate (GA) 20 mg/day (GA20) is associated with immediate post-injection reactions (PIRs). For convenience of use, approved GA 40 mg three times weekly (GA40) delivers a similar weekly dose. The dose and concentration of a single GA40 injection are, however, twice as high as for GA20, and post-injection adverse events may differ. Cases of atypical PIRs to GA40 prompted us to systematically monitor such events.
1. In Page 244, under General Pharmacokinetic Principles, Column 1-the following sentence should come after reference 21.
Chronic visual loss is a disabling feature in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It was recently shown that MD1003 (high-dose pharmaceutical-grade biotin or hdPB) may improve disability in patients with progressive MS.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that allows for the assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and total macular volume (TMV), which reflect neuroaxonal integrity within the retina. As such it has been used in multiple sclerosis (MS) to study neurodegeneration. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used treatment for MS, which is suggested to have a possible neuroprotective role.
Polypharmacy can appropriately treat multiple chronic conditions, but it can also increase potential harm. Polypharmacy information for primary headaches is minimal, despite drugs being the main tools to manage headaches.
Ketamine and its enantiomer S-ketamine (esketamine) are promising candidates to produce a rapid-onset antidepressant effect in treatment-resistant depression. Ketamine causes continued blockade of the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, though this might not primarily mediate the antidepressant effect. Alternative hypotheses include selectivity for the NMDA receptor subtype containing the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), inhibition of the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eE...
Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial disorder for which there is no disease-modifying treatment yet. CB2 receptors have emerged as a promising therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease because they are expressed in neuronal and glial cells and their activation has no psychoactive effects.
An Online First version of this article was made available online at http://link.springer.com/journal/40263/onlineFirst/page/1 on 12 March 2018. An error was subsequently identified in the article, and the following correction should be noted.
ND0701, A Novel Formulation of Apomorphine for Subcutaneous Infusion, in Comparison to a Commercial Apomorphine Formulation: 28-Day Pharmacokinetic Study in Minipigs and a Phase I Study in Healthy Volunteers to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Relative Bioavailability.
Subcutaneous apomorphine is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, infusion site reactions are a common adverse event (AE), which can lead to treatment discontinuation. Apomorphine formulations that are more tolerable and convenient for use are needed.
The issue of antipsychotic treatment during pregnancy is subject to substantial uncertainty and some controversy among healthcare providers, specifically pertaining to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) that are subject to a large gap in safety data during pregnancy compared with antidepressants. The amount of safety data for the use of SGAs during pregnancy is rapidly increasing, thus constantly changing the level of evidence. We performed a clinically focused review on the safety of SGA during pregna...
All antipsychotics, including the atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially irreversible movement disorder, the pathophysiology of which is currently unknown. The prevention and treatment of TD remain major challenges for clinicians. We conducted a PubMed search to review the prevalence and etiology of and management strategies for TD associated with AAPs. TD prevalence rates varied substantially between studies, with an estimated prevalence of around 20% in patients u...
Previous reviews have examined the use of theoretically supported combinations of drugs for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. This review seeks to examine the strengths and limitations of current clinical evidence for the use of combined pharmacological interventions intended to treat alcohol use disorder.
The antiepileptic drug pregabalin is one of the best-selling pharmaceutical products worldwide. There are increasing concerns about its potential for misuse and dependence especially among patients with former or current substance use disorders (SUDs).